|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 35-41
Comparative study on individual's performance orientation and their aura life color
V Vaidehi Priyal, N Ramkumar
Faculty of Human Resource, PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||22-Jun-2015|
V Vaidehi Priyal
PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyze the individual's performance orientation based on their aura life color. Methods: For the present study, a questionnaire was framed to assess seven aura colors based on eight components, such as approach to physical reality, mental attitude, emotional makeup, social style, personal power and leadership style, financial choices, career options and spirituality, and individual's performance orientation factors: loyalty, workaholic and goal-orientation. Data from 189 respondents was drawn from service (academic and hospital) and manufacturing (textile and auto component) sectors in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India). Results: The questionnaire was subjected to reliability analysis and found to be reliable. The Independent Sample T Test analysis was done between aura life colors of higher (violet, indigo, blue, green) and lower (yellow, orange, red) order chakras with all performance orientation factors. It is inferred that individuals in aura life colors of higher order chakras are comparatively more loyal and goal-oriented when compared with individuals in lower order chakras. Similarly, it is identified that there is significant difference between individuals with violet - red, blue - red and green - red aura life colors with performance orientation factors. The result of which is, violet respondents are goal-oriented and blue respondents are found to be loyal when compared with respondents of red aura life color. Also, green respondents are found to be workaholic and goal-oriented when compared with respondents of red aura life color. Conclusion: The results of this study will guide researchers, in how performance can be improved by progression of individuals in aura life colors of lower order chakras to higher order chakras through spiritual management techniques.
Keywords: Aura life color, goal-orientation, loyalty, performance, workaholism
|How to cite this article:|
Priyal V V, Ramkumar N. Comparative study on individual's performance orientation and their aura life color. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2014;2:35-41
|How to cite this URL:|
Priyal V V, Ramkumar N. Comparative study on individual's performance orientation and their aura life color. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 29];2:35-41. Available from: http://www.ijoyppp.org/text.asp?2014/2/2/35/159126
| Introduction|| |
In an organization, goal-oriented productivity is of significant achievement for its success. To achieve this, a strong, cordial and good relationship should be encouraged between employees and employers. It is assumed that when employees joined an organization, they intended to stay, grow and mature in that organization. First, loyalty meant the company would always provide regular pay raises, recognition and other tangible and intangible benefits.  Employee loyalty affects company performance, competitiveness and ultimately the bottom line. Today, the old employment contract is null and void. Employee loyalty cannot be taken for granted; it must be fostered and cultivated. The new employment contract encourages participative decision-making, career development, pay for productivity and flexible benefits. The employee's loyalty seems to be declining in all parts of the world. In USA, 32% percentage of US employees in 2010 who said they "are seriously considering leaving" their organization, while, in India, it was 28%. 
The next important factor that contributes for organization's achievement is the workaholism. Machlowitz,  described workaholics as very satisfied, productive, healthy individuals. There is general agreement that workaholism is a stable individual difference characteristic. There is also some consensus that workaholism is likely to be a central concept in understanding the relationship of workplace experiences,  typically involving work stressors, and a variety of work outcomes (satisfaction, job performance), extra work satisfactions (family, friends), and health indicators (psychosomatic symptoms, medication use).
Another factor is the individual's goal-orientation. According to Sujansky, CEO of KeyGroup, an organization's performance was equally contributed by goal-oriented culture of the employees. This is possible by establishing the seven important goal posts, they are: (1) Sharing the big picture with employees, (2) work with employees to set challenging, yet attainable goals, (3) give staff a real voice in your firm's future, (4) make sure their work is meaningful, (5) condone risk-taking, (6) install systems that measure productivity, (7) give feedback.
The human body is a biological system, surrounded by an electromagnetic field called the human bioenergy. This human radiation wave is a collection of electromagnetic waves of varying intensities flowing in and around the body, which vibrates at their own characteristic of frequencies.  This electromagnetic field, which radiates around the body is called as Aura. In human beings, it is a storehouse of all positive and negative energies. Aura's color, brightness, and range indicate the character, conduct, health and emotions of an individual.  That is why aura of holy persons is much wider and brighter than a common human being.
A lot has been learned this century, about the light properties of subtle energy fields and auras from the works of prominent scientists like Polish doctor Iodko-Narkovitz worked with photo-electricity and electrical field measurement, Russian inventor Semyon Davidovich Kirlian  experimented with the qualities and meanings of auras using photography and electrofield imaging, British doctor Kilner  invented a series of goggles and filters through which anyone can see auras in detail, also Harry Oldfield invented Polycontrast Interference Photography, which visualizes patterns of light radiating from biological organisms and inanimate objects.
The energy body of aura has seven layers, each layer being related to each of the seven energy centers called chakras.  If all the chakras are in harmony, programmed positively, aura will be wider with pleasant effects on the persons coming in the range. The human aura may extend from a few centimeters up to a few meters, which varies from person to person. It is important to keep the aura free from negative energies such as anger, worry, fear and such other emotions that disturb the normal functioning of physical, mental and emotional systems.  The aura's health can be maintained, for instance, by regular practice of yoga, meditation, Tai Chi, pranic healing, classical sound therapy or Reiki. A healthy aura signifies healthy body, mind, and spirit.
The main purpose of the present study is to compare the individual's performance orientation-loyalty, workaholism, goal-orientation - and their aura life color of higher (violet, indigo, blue, green) or lower order chakras (yellow, orange, red).
| Overview of literature|| |
The review of literature is categorized under two concepts namely performance oriented factors and aura.
Review on performance
The organizational success and outcome are highly depended on the individual's loyalty, workaholics and goal orientation, which ultimately result in individual's performance.
Several authors have reported a positive relationship between goal orientation and job satisfaction. ,, This could be achieved by motivational beliefs, , wages,  learning opportunities and behaviors ,, and competition among the individuals.  Learning culture definitely moderates the planning communication effectiveness on goal achievement and firm success.  According to Gelderen et al.,  learning opportunities and learning behaviors are related to three outcome measures: A performance outcome (goal achievement), a personal growth outcome (skill development), and an effective evaluation outcome (satisfaction).
Individual's loyalty to job performance is related to employee's attitude and behavior, , commitment,  involvement,  interpersonal relations,  satisfaction ,,, and leadership style.  Individual's loyalty can be improved by top management communication and organizational commitment, and stronger learning achievement and learning behaviors.  The outcome of employee loyalty influences corporate performance and firm growth. , According to Wan,  management executives could perhaps use the results of the analysis to redesign their management policies so as to shift from brain drain to brain gain.
The various characteristics of workaholism according to authors are identified as motivational orientations, , organizational culture, , attitudinal and demographic variables  and various other dimensions.  It was found that workaholics experience poorer health status, poorer social and role functioning than other nonworkaholic employees.  According to Friedman and Lobel,  through an environment of open, honest and fear-free communication, happy workaholics help unlock their employee's freedom to raise and resolve such concerns, with better performance.
Review on aura
Personal aura depends only on the endogenous electromagnetic field of human, which depends on the internal psychological and metabolic processes and changes.  Since, the aura reflected the state of health, a method of auric diagnosis of illness was formulated.  It is identified that aura has association with interpersonal communication , and interpersonal attraction.  Studies also discuss about determining aura through questionnaires , and instruments like Aura Video Station,  Kirlian Photography  and Gas Discharge Visualization or GDV. ,,, The GDV camera has also been used to monitor the results of stress management training.  However from the literature review, it is inferred that the questionnaire to identify the aura of a person has not been widely used, especially in the Indian context. Furthermore, detecting aura through instruments is not user-friendly with regard to usage, consistency, and cost.
Based on the previous researches, it can be observed that aura can be linked with individual performance and the same is depicted [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Comparison of performance oriented factors (loyalty, workaholism, goal-orientation) between aura life colors of higher and lower order chakras|
Click here to view
Most of the individuals in higher order chakral development generating the aura life colors violet, Indigo, blue or green are high performers, since they are in the spiritual enlightenment progress. In general, the individuals in lower order chakral development falling under the aura life colors red, orange, yellow are low performers because of their materialistic bond. It is assumed that the individuals in aura life colors of the higher order chakras have high-performance orientation: Loyalty, workaholism and goal-orientation, when compared to individuals emanating aura life colors of the lower order chakras.
| Objectives|| |
The objectives of the study are:
- To determine the aura life color of individuals working in different sectors (academic, hospital, textile, auto component) in Coimbatore
- To compare between individual's performance orientation and their aura life color.
| Methodology|| |
In this research, two questionnaires are combined into a single assessment tool, to determine the performance of an individual influenced by aura life color. They are:
- Aura Life Color Questionnaire
- Performance Questionnaire.
- The questionnaire on "Aura Life Colour" is framed based on 7 aura colors, which are violet (Crown Chakra), indigo (Third Eye or Brow Chakra), blue (Throat Chakra), green (Heart Chakra), yellow (Solar Plexus or Navel Chakra), orange (Sacral Chakra) and red (Base Chakra). The tool was designed from various questionnaires developed by aura experts and practitioners across the world, who have many years of rich experience in the field of esoteric science; they are: Bowers  (14 Aura Colours); Grand Master Sui,  who is the founder of Modern Pranic Healing and Arhatic Yoga; Fisslinger  (12 Aura Colours); and Oslie  (15 Aura Colours). The "Aura Life Colour Questionnaire" includes 112 questions, which were segregated under eight components, each component consisting of 2 questions each from all the 7 aura life colors. For example, in the case of spiritual construct violet aura are spiritually enhanced when compared with other aura life colors, gradually decreasing down the lower order chakras. The respondents have to make their response in a 5 point Likert scale varying from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree"
- The "Performance Questionnaire" consists of 15 questions totally, 5 questions in each of the 3 performance orientation factors namely: Loyalty, workaholism, and goal-orientation.
[Table 1] is the description of aura life color and performance orientation questionnaire.
Questionnaire reliability and purification analysis
Reliability of constructs refers to the accuracy with which the constructs repeatedly measure the same phenomenon without much variation. The reliability of each construct and sub-construct in question was examined using Cronbach's alpha.  An alpha score larger than 0.7 is generally acceptable as sufficient accuracy for a construct. 
Purification is carried out by inspecting the CITC values of each variable with respect to the construct to which it belongs. CITC indicates whether the variable actually belongs to the construct or not. Variables showing scores lower than 0.5 are deleted unless there is a compelling reason to keep them in the construct. Some items with CITC values over 0.5 can also be removed, if the overall reliability of the construct in question improves as a result of the deletion (obtained by checking the "alpha if deleted" scores). 
Reliability and purification analysis were done for a 'approach to physical reality' is given in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Reliability and purification analysis-alpha value for approach to physical reality construct|
Click here to view
From [Table 2], The CITC value of PB1 was 0.20; on deleting the item there was only a minimal increase in alpha score, so the item was retained. The alpha value of the approach to physical reality construct on 14 items performed by 189 cases was 0.76.
Reliability analysis was also performed for mental attitude, emotional makeup, social style, personal power and leadership style, financial choices, career options, and spirituality constructs.
Reliability was also done for performance orientation constructs. The alpha value for loyalty construct on 5 items performed by 189 cases was 0.61. Similarly, a reliability analysis was performed for workaholism and goal-orientation constructs on 5 items each by 189 cases and alpha value was found to be 0.69 and 0.78 respectively.
[Table 3] represents the details of the alpha value for aura life color and performance orientation constructs.
|Table 3: Alpha value for "aura life colour and performance orientation" constructs|
Click here to view
All constructs have alpha value more than 0.6, indicating that the questionnaire is reliable. On purification of this questionnaire, the data collection was carried out.
The sampling method adopted was "Stratified Random Sampling." The sampling frame consisted of individuals from service (academic and hospital) and manufacturing (textile and auto component) sectors in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The sample size was fixed as 250. Out of which, 189 respondents as detailed below, gave valid responses [Table 4].
| Results and discussion|| |
Aura life colors across sectors
To know the aura life colors across sectors, crosstabs analysis was done. [Table 5] represents the number of respondents in each aura life color across four sectors in Coimbatore.
The crosstabs analysis revealed that maximum number of respondents had blue aura life color in all the sectors except textile, which showed maximum respondents in red aura life color.
- Academic: Out of 99 respondents in academic sector, 51 respondents have blue aura life color, followed by green with 16 respondents of higher order chakras. In lower order chakras, 14 respondents in red aura life color. Whereas in other aura life colors, respondents were minimal
- Hospital: In hospital sector, out of 36 respondents, 18 respondents were in blue aura life color, followed by red aura with 8 respondents. The number of respondents in other aura life colors was very scarce
- Textile: In the textile sector, a maximum of 16 respondents were in red aura life color of lower order chakras, indicating they are not spiritually enhanced, rather are engrossed in worldly desires and materialistic attachment. Followed by blue and green aura colors with 7 and 5 respondents respectively of higher order chakras
- Auto component: Out of 18 respondents in auto component sector, 9 respondents were in blue aura life color of higher order chakras, followed by red aura with 4 respondents. The numbers of respondents in other aura life colors were little.
Difference in performance orientation based on aura life colors
Difference based on aura life colors of higher and lower order chakras in performance orientation
Independent sample t-test analysis was done between aura life colors of higher order (violet, indigo, blue, green) and lower order (yellow, orange, red) chakras with performance orientation factors: Loyalty, workaholism, goal-orientation. [Table 6] reveals the result of the analysis conducted.
|Table 6: Independent sample t-test between aura life colours of higher and lower order chakras with performance orientation|
Click here to view
From the [Table 6], it is inferred that there is a significant difference in loyalty between aura life colors of higher and lower order chakras (since in significant two-tailed 0.02 <0.05), null hypotheses is rejected. In loyalty, the mean of aura life colors of higher order is 4.17 and lower order chakras is 3.97. Hence, respondents in higher order are comparatively more loyal when compared to lower order chakras. In case of workaholic, there is no significant difference between higher and lower order chakras. Similarly, it is found that there is a significant difference in goal-orientation, between aura life colors of higher and lower order chakras (since in significant two-tailed 0.04 < 0.05). However, in goal-orientation the mean of higher order is 4.42 and lower order chakras is 4.26, indicating respondents in higher order are goal-oriented than lower order chakras.
Between individual aura life colors of higher and lower order chakras with performance orientation
The independent sample t-test analysis was conducted between individual aura life colors of higher order (violet, indigo, blue, green) and lower order (yellow, orange, red) chakras with performance orientation factors: Loyalty, workaholism, goal-orientation. The analysis reveals that there is no significant difference between aura life colors of violet-yellow and violet-orange with all performance orientation factors. It was found that between aura life colors of violet-red with performance orientation, there is a significant difference in goal-orientation between violet and red. The mean of violet is 4.74 and red is 4.25 indicating violet respondents are goal-oriented when compared with red. [Table 7], represents the analysis between aura life colors violet-red with performance orientation.
|Table 7: Independent sample t-test between aura life colours violet-red with performance orientation|
Click here to view
Similarly, independent sample t-test analysis was done between indigo-yellow, indigo-orange and indigo-red with all performance orientation factors indicating that, there is no significant difference. When the analysis was performed between blue-yellow, blue-orange and blue-red with performance orientation factors, it was found that between aura life colors of blue-red there is a significant difference in loyalty between blue and red. The mean of blue is 4.19 and red is 3.98 indicating blue respondents are loyal when compared with red.
From the independent sample t-test, it was also found that there was no significant difference between aura life colors of green-yellow and green-orange with performance orientation. Whereas, significant difference in workaholic and goal-orientation was identified between green-red. The mean of green is 4.25 and red is 4.03 revealing green respondents are workaholic than red, also the mean of green is 4.52 and red is 4.25 indicating again green respondents are goal-oriented when compared with red.
| Implications|| |
On finding out the differences in individual aura life color with performance orientation factors: Loyalty-workaholism-goal-orientation, through questionnaire; its understood individuals with aura life colors of higher order chakras are comparatively more loyal and goal-oriented than aura life colors of lower order chakras. The assessment tool helps the human resource managers to understand the link between "Aura Life Color and Performance Orientation," maintain a record, monitor and keep track of their performance. By rising individuals from lower to higher order chakras, there will be development in human functioning relative to progress, productivity, and positivity, which will be a foundation for an individual performance. Thus, the study helps to improve the individual's performance by the transition of respondents from aura life colors of a lower order to higher order chakras through spiritual management tools.
| Conclusion|| |
This comparative study between performance orientation and aura life color of higher (violet, indigo, blue, green) and lower (yellow, orange, red) order chakras indicates that there is significant difference in loyalty and goal-orientation. On finding out the differences in individual aura life color with performance orientation through questionnaire, it's understood that aura life colors of higher order chakras are high performers when compared with aura life colors of lower order chakras. This result will guide for future implications in how performance can be improved by the progression of individuals in aura life colors of lower order chakras to higher order chakras through spiritual management techniques.
| References|| |
McGuinness BM. The change in employee loyalty. Nurs Manage 1998;29:45-6.
Brotherton P. Employee loyalty slipping worldwide; respect, work-life balance are top engagers, T+D. Training & Development 2012;66:24.
Machlowitz M. Workaholics: Living with Them, Working with Them. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1980.
Burke RJ. Introduction: Workaholism in organisations. J Organ Change Manag 2004;17:420-3.
Jalil SZ, Taib MN, Abdullah H, Yunus MM. Frequency radiation characteristic around the human body. Int J Simul Syst Sci Technol 2011;12:34-9.
Brennan BA. Hands of Light: A Guide to Healing Through the Human Energy Field. Bantam Books. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.; 1987.
Kirlian SD, Kirlian V. Photography and visual observation by means of high-frequency currents. J Sci Appl Photogr 1961;6:397-403.
Kilner WJ. The Human Atmosphere, or the Aura Made Visible by the aid of Chemical Screens, 1911. Reprinted as the Human Aura. New York: Citadel Press; 1965.
Best KC. A chakra system model of lifespan development. Int J Transpersonal Stud 2010;29:11-27.
Panchadasi S. The Human Aura. Astral Colors and Thought Forms. Chicago, IL: Yoga Publication Society; 1916.
Lin S, Chang J. Goal orientation and organizational commitment as explanatory factors of employee′s mobility. Pers Rev 2005;34:331-85.
Lee C, Hui C, Tinsley CH, Niu X. Goal orientations and performance: Role of temporal norms. J Int Bus Stud 2006;37:484-98.
Brown S, Huning T. Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction: The Intervening Role of Goal Orientation. Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict; 2010.
Bong M. Academic motivation in self-efficacy, task value, achievement goal orientations and attributional beliefs. J Educ Res 2004;97:287-97.
Ho IT, Hau K. Academic achievement in the Chinese context: The role of goals, strategies and effort. Int J Psychol 2008;43:892-7.
Bassey AO, Ojua TA, Bassey UA, Ottong JG. Conflicts between line and staff employee and the achievement of organisational goal and objectives: A study of university of Calabar teaching hospital. Int J Bus Soc Sci 2012;3:116-21.
Gelderen MV, Sluis LV, Jansen P. Learning opportunities and learning behaviours of small business starters: Relations with goal achievement, skill development and satisfaction. Small Bus Econ 2005;27:97-108.
Baranik LE, Barron KE, Finney SJ. Examining specific general measures of achievement goals. Hum Perform 2010;23:155-72.
Anseel F, Yperen NW, Janssen O, Duyck W. Feedback type as a moderator of the relationship between achievement goals and feedback reactions. J Occup Organ Psychol 2011;84:703-22.
Heidemeier H, Bittner JV. Competition and achievement goals in work teams. Hum Perf 2012;25:138-58.
Bunnoon P, Ussahawanitchakit P. Profit planning efficiency, goal achievement and firm success: Evidence from canned food business in Thailand. J Int Bus Econ 2012;12:1-16.
Roehling PV, Roehling MV, Moen P. The relationship between work-life policies and practices and employee loyalty: A life course perspective. J Fam Econ Issues 2001;22:141-70.
Conway E, Monks K. Unravelling the complexities of high commitment: An employee-level analysis. Hum Resour Manage J 2009;19:140-58.
Brown S, McHardy J, McNabb R, Taylor K. Workplace performance, worker commitment and loyalty. J Econ Manag Strategy 2011;20:925-55.
Mahajan A, Bishop JW, Scott D. Does trust in top management mediate top management communication, employee involvement and organisational commitment relationships. J Manage Issues 2012;24:173-90.
Narra V. Ergonomics: A key differentiator to employee loyalty. IUP J Manag Res 2009;8:68-78.
Eskildsen JK, Nussler ML. The managerial drivers of employee satisfaction and loyalty. Total Qual Manag 2000;11:S581-8.
Silvestro R. Dispelling the modern myth: Employee satisfaction and loyalty drive service profitability. Int J Oper Prod Manag 2002;22:30-49.
Matzler K, Renzl B. The relationship between interpersonal trust, employee satisfaction and employee loyalty. Total Qual Manag 2006;17:1261-71.
Chang CC, Chiu CM, Chen CA. The effect of TQM practices on employee satisfaction and loyalty in government. Total Qual Manag 2010;21:1299-314.
Ding D, Lu H, Song Y, Lu Q. Relationship of servant leadership and employee loyalty: The mediating role of employee satisfaction. iBusiness 2012;4:208-15.
Lin Y, Chen S, Chuang H. The effect of organisational commitment on employee reactions to educational training: An evaluation using the kirkpatrick four-level model. Int J Manag 2011;28:926-38.
Antoncic JA, Antoncic B. Employee loyalty and its impact on firm growth. Int J Manag Inf Syst 2011;15:81-7.
Van den Broeck A, Schreurs B, Witte HD, Vansteenkiste M, Germeys F, Schanufeli W. Understanding workaholics′ motivations: A self-determination perspective. Appl Psychol Int Rev 2011;60:600-21.
Van Beek I, Hu Q, Schaufeli WB, Taris TW, Schreurs BH. For fun, love or money: What drives workaholic, engaged and burned-out employees at work?" Appl Psychol Int Rev 2012;61:30-55.
Burke RJ. Workaholism in organisations: The role of organizational values. Pers Rev 2001;30:637-45.
Burke RJ. Do workaholics prefer demanding, aggressive and results-oriented organizational cultures? Career Dev Int 2002;7:211-7.
Harpaz I, Snir R. Workaholism: Its definition and nature. Hum Relat 2003;56:291-319.
Peiperl M, Jones B. Workaholics and overworkers: Productivity or pathology?" Group Organ Manag 2001;26:369-93.
McMillan LH, O′Driscoll MP. Workaholism and health: Implications for organisations. J Organ Change Manag 2004;17:509-19.
Friedman SD, Lobel S. The happy workaholic: A role model for employees. Acad Manage Exec 2003;17:87-98.
Ristovski LM. Bioenergy, Biofield, Aura: What Kind of Energy they are, and Whether it is Possible to Measure and to Visualise them, Symposium of Quantum-Informational Medicine: Acupuncture-Based and Consciousness-Based Holistic Approaches and Techniques; 2011.
Samways L. Your Mindbody Energy: How to Access Your Hidden Energies and Take Control of Your Life. Australia: Penguin Books Australia Ltd.; 1992.
Smith WL. The human electromagnetic energy field: Its relationship to interpersonal communication. J Theor 2002;4. Available from: http://www.journaloftheoretics.com
. [Last retrieved on 2012 Feb 6].
Murstein BI, Hadjolian SE. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction. J Pers Assess 1977;41:255-65.
Bowers B. What Color is Your Aura? Personality Spectrums for Understanding and Growth. Pocket Books. New York: Pocket Books; 1989.
Oslie P. Life Colours - What the Colours in Your Aura Reveal. Novato, California: New World Library Blue Auras; 2000.
Fisslinger JR. Aura Mastery. Marina del Rey, CA: Inneractive; 1998. Available from: http://www.inneractive.com/
. [Last retrieved on 2012 Feb 6].
Mandel P. Energy Emission Analysis: New Application of Kirlian Photography for Holistic Health. Essen, Germany: Synthesis Publishing Company; 1986.
Korotkov K. Aura and consciousness: New stage of scientific understanding. St. Petersburg, Russia: State Editing and Publishing Unit "Kultura"; 1998a.
Korotkov K. Light After Life: A Scientific Journey Into the Spiritual World. Fair Lawn, NJ: Backbone Publishing Co.; 1998b.
Korotkov K. Human Energy Field: Study with GDV Bioelectrography. St. Petersburg, Russia: St. Petersburg State Institute of Fine Mechanics and Optics (Technical University); 2002.
Dobson P, O′Keffe E. Investigations into stress and its management using the Gas discharge visualization technique. Int J Altern Complement Med 2000;3:12-7.
Sui CK. Advanced Pranic Healing. Bangalore, Karnataka: Institute for Inner Studies Publishing Foundation India Private Limited; 1992.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951;16:297-334.
Nunnally JC. Psychometric Theory. New York: McCraw-Hill; 1978.
Churchill GA. A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. J Mark Stud 1979;16:12-27.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]