|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-4
Hindi version of Vedic Personality Inventory-reliability and construct validity
Rahul Singh1, Mandeep Singh2, Sasidharan K Rajesh1, Judu V Ilavarasu1, Balaram Pradhan3, Sudheer Deshpande4
1 Department of Psychology, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Division of Yoga and Life Science, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Division of Yoga and Humanities, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Division of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jul-2015|
Sasidharan K Rajesh
Department of Psychology, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: According to the scripture, Guëäs are the fundamental ways by which a man's thought and deeds are guided. Study of Guëäs plays a very important role in yoga research. Aim: Aims of the current research were to prepare a translated Hindi version of the Vedic Personality Inventory (H-VPI) and assess the internal consistencies as well as construct validity. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study comprised of 284 samples (74 females and 210 males). Participants' age ranged between 18 and 65 years with a mean age of 25.23 years (standard deviation = 8.77). The subjects were from Alwar District, Rajasthan India. Who were the students of graduation and postgraduation studies at the Siddhi Vinak College, Government Higher Secondary School and local participants. Subjects and Methods: Participants were given questionnaire packets including demographic details, H-VPI, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) scale. Results: Cronbach's α for the H-VPI indicate adequate internal consistency ranging from 0.69 to 0.91. Mindfulness was correlated positively (r = 0.36) with Sattava and negatively with Rajas (r = −0.19 and Tamas (r = −0.36). Psychological distress was correlated negatively with Sattava (r = −0.45) and positively with Rajas (r = 0.33) and Tamas (r = 0.37). PA was correlated positively with Sattava (r = 0.19) and negatively with Rajas (r = −0.10) and Tamas (r = −0.19). NA was correlated negatively with Sattava (r = −0.38), and positively with Rajas (r = 0.22), and Tamas (r = 0.36). Conclusions: In summary, the current study found that the H-VPI has adequate reliability and construct validity. This questionnaire will be very useful in assessing Yogic personality (Guëäs), whom the native language is Hindi.
Key words: Affect, distress, guna, mindfulness, reliability, yoga
Keywords: Affect, distress, guna, mindfulness, reliability, yoga
|How to cite this article:|
Singh R, Singh M, Rajesh SK, Ilavarasu JV, Pradhan B, Deshpande S. Hindi version of Vedic Personality Inventory-reliability and construct validity. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2015;3:1-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Singh R, Singh M, Rajesh SK, Ilavarasu JV, Pradhan B, Deshpande S. Hindi version of Vedic Personality Inventory-reliability and construct validity. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Apr 21];3:1-4. Available from: http://www.ijoyppp.org/text.asp?2015/3/1/1/161019
| Introduction|| |
Study of Guëäs is very essential in yoga research. According to the scripture, Guëäs are the fundamental ways by which a man's thought and deeds are guided. Tri-gunäs was depicted extensively in the fourteenth chapter, Guëatrayavibhäga Yoga and the eighteenth chapter, Mokñña Sanyäsa Yoga of Bhagavad-Gita. According to Sri Krishna, nature of human mind is a combination of these Guëäs: Sattava (happiness), Rajas (passion), and Tamas (dullness). When these three Guëäs interact; the expression of personality emerges the characteristics of Sattav is knowledge and happiness. Rajas manifest as increase in the activity, good planning, execution of work, and desire for enjoyments. Tamas expresses as lack of intelligence, lack of effort, delusion, and full of dullness.  A study was conducted on the effect of Mahamantra chanting has shown significant increase Sattava quality and reduction in Tamas characteristics, with no change in Rajas.  Recent yoga-based experimental study on 226 normal healthy volunteers on Guëäs (personality) and self-esteem reported significant improvement in all the variables in the yoga group.  Other experiment has shown that 1-month yoga practice shown significant improvement in emotional intelligence, yogic personality (guna), and general health. , Yoga based intervention shown have several positive impacts a lifestyle, behavior, and different kind of psychological aspects.
Hindi is spoken by a majority of people, particularly in the northern India and is the national language. In the light of the wide applicability of understanding yogic personality (guna) and linguistic diversity. Hence, the present study made an attempt to prepare a translated version of the Hindi Vedic Personality Inventory (H-VPI). Further, assess the internal consistencies as well as construct validity, which were examined by calculating correlations with construct such as psychological distress, negative emotion (divergent validity), and mindfulness, positive emotion (convergent validity).
| Subjects and methods|| |
Two hundred and eight four adult and emerging adult from Alwar District, Rajasthan, India were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Each participant read and signed an informed consent document. All the procedures were reviewed and accepted by the appropriate institutional review board. Participants were given questionnaire packets including demographic details and self-report measures.
| Inclusion criteria|| |
- Males and females
- Age 18-65 years
- Who can read and understand Hindi
- Voluntary participation.
| Preparation of the Hindi version of the Vedic Personality Inventory|| |
First, draft of 56 item VPI was translated from English into Hindi by two native Hindi speaking experts who were not familiar with the concept of guna. Subsequently, this translation was back-translated independently by two bilingual experts (both native Hindi speaking). The original and back-translated versions were compared and discussed by the authors, psychologist, and the back-translator. Items with discrepancies between the translated instrument and the original instrument thoroughly discussed and appropriately revised and agreed on a final common translation, which has undergone simplification of the language, the technical words, correct syntax construction by native Hindi speaking experts. Before starting the psychometric study, the questionnaire was administered to a few adults to assess its comprehensibility and acceptance; minor changes resulted.
| Assessment|| |
Vedic personality inventor
The VPI: In 1998, Wolf developed an inventory to assess three personality constructs (Guëäs) based on their description in the most ancient Indian scriptures Vedas. Hence, this inventory was named as VPI and it measures the three Guëäs - Sattava, Rajas, and Tamas. It has 15 items for the Sattava Guëä, 19 for Rajo Guëä, and 22 for Tamo Guëä. VPI has good internal consistency and validity.
Mindfulness attention awareness scale
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale is a 15-item questionnaire to  which measures dispositional mindfulness (e.g. I rush through activities without being really attentive to them and I drive places on "automatic pilot").
General Health Questionnaire
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) consist of 12-item, which was a shorter version of orginal GHQ.  This was used to measure symptoms of stress and associated distress "over the last few weeks."
Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a 20-item scale that measures positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). PA refers to the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active, and alert and NA refers to subjective distress and unpleasurable engagement that subsumes a variety of aversive mood states, including anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, and nervousness. 
| Results|| |
All statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 16.0 (Chicago, SPSS Inc). Pearson correlations were used to examine the association between H-VPI and psychological well-being (positive and negative emotion, mindfulness, and psychological distress). Further, Cronbach's alpha was measured for each domain and for total scale.
| Consistency reliability|| |
In order to examine the reliability of each factor, Cronbach's α was calculated for each factor of the H-VPI. [Table 1] reveals the reliability of each factor in the Hindi and English versions of the VPI. As shown in [Table 1], Cronbach's α for the H-VPI indicate adequate internal consistency ranging from 0.69 to 0.91.
Descriptive Statistics and correlations between H-VPI psychological constructs (mindfulness, GHQ, and PANAS) are summarized in [Table 2]. Mindfulness was correlated positively (r = 0.356, P < 0.00) with VPI Sattava and correlated negatively with VPI Rajas (r = −0.187, P < 0.02) and VPI Tamas (r = −0.360, P < 0.00) GHQ was correlated negatively with VPI Sattava (r = −0.445, P < 0.00) and positively correlated with VPI Rajas (r = 0.330, P < 0.00) and Tamas (r = 0.371, P < 0.00). PA was correlated positively with VPI Sattava (r = 0.194, P < 0.01) and correlated negatively with VPI Rajas (r = −0.097, P < 0.104) and VPI Tamas (r = −0.186, P < 0.002). NA was correlated negatively with VPI Sattava (r = −0.376, P < 0.000), and positively correlated VPI Rajas (r = 0.224, P < 0.000), and VPI Tamas (r = 0.356, P < 0.000).
| Discussion|| |
The aim of the present study was to find reliability and validation of H-VPI. The Cronbach's alpha of the H-VPI subscales indicates adequate internal consistency. However, it should be noted the alpha coefficients of the Tamas subscale were lower than the others. Convergent validity of three facets of the H-VPI was excellent as shown by the correlations between Guëä facets and theoretically related (e.g., positive emotions and mindfulness). Divergent validity of three domains of Guëä are wreaked not related (e.g., negative emotions and psychological distress) constructs. The same result was noticed in VPI (English version).  The Current study support the mechanism of previous studies measured general health and guëä variables in a randomized control trial on yoga-based intervention shown an increase in Sattava and enhancement of general health. ,, Rajas and Tamas have both positive and negative qualities of life that have violent state of mind and impulsive behavior.  Sattava is a symbol of good health, spiritual excellence and other noble and sublime qualities.  which may enhance the present moment awareness with a nonjudgmental and nonreactive of the external stimuli. As the person's guëëää score decreases, it takes him toward Tamas which is indicated by decreased psychological freedom (Sattava to Rajas, Rajas to Tamas). Yoga provides training modules to help individually to move toward Sattava and beyond these three qualities to achieve good health and to be free from all physical and mental illness. Sattvic persons may experience present moment awareness with discriminating cognition, which may have been the cause for the positive correlation with dispositional mindfulness and positive emotion. Further, Rajasic nature consists of impulsive behavior which may inhibit effective self-regulated behavior and emotional states and that may be the reason for the observed for negative correlation.
The present study suffers from several limitations. The sample in this study consisted solely people from one location which limits the generalizability of the present findings. The further current sample in this study consisted with a greater proportion of male participants. Factor analysis and test-retest reliability were not tested. With the current study design, it was not possible to investigate sensitivity to change. The strength of the study is first time VPI translated into Hindi and opens the avenue for further studies to understand the human personality from the perspective of yoga. Future studies should evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire in divergent population. Future studies should assess the structural validity of the Hindi version of the H-VPI, and especially the particular nature of the personality between yoga practitioner and nonpractitioner. Further, concurrent validity should examine the correlation between the H-VPI and the other measures of personality. In summary, the current study found that the H-VPI has adequate reliability and good construct validity in line with English version.  We believe this questionnaire will be useful in future for exploration of the facets of understanding the nature of the yogic personality.
| Acknowledgments|| |
We acknowledge all subjects in this study for their participation and college principals who granted permission.
| References|| |
Swami Tapasyananda. Srimad Bhagavad Gita: the Scripture of Mankind. Sri Ramakrishna Math. 1984.
Wolf DB. A psychometric analysis of the three gunas. Psychol Rep 1999;84:1379-90.
Deshpande S, Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Yoga 2009;2:13-21.
Khemka SS, Ramarao NH, Hankey A. Effect of integral yoga on psychological and health variables and their correlations. Int J Yoga 2011;4:93-9.
Kumari S, Nath NC, Nagendra HR. The relationship between emotional quotient and guna typology. Indira Manage Rev 2008;16:72-81.
Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003;84:822-48.
Goldberg D, Williams P. A Users Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Slough: NFER-Nelson; 1988.
Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 1988;54:1063-70.
Wolf DB. The Vedic Personality Inventory: A study of Gunas. J Indian Psychol 1998;16:26-43.
Deshpande S, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Yoga 2008;1:2-10.
Nagendra HR. Yoga for Promotion Positive Health. Bangalore: Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashna; 2010.
[Table 1], [Table 2]