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   2013| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 21, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Triguna as personality concept: Guidelines for empirical research
Judu V Ilavarasu, Sarasvati Mohan, Alex Hankey
January-June 2013, 1(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123287  
In the East triguna is considered an important personality concept. Compared to western models of personality, triguna is less popular globally. Even in the East, research on triguna is scarce. Interest in the area peaked in the 1970s when theoretical works led to the development of several questionnaires. However, practical use of these tools failed to take off. Triguna research remains sporadic, strongly suggesting a lack of channelized work. The new tools, which were developed are also not much used. Apart from psychology, in recent times, management research has taken to investigating triguna and other related constructs like karma yoga. Considering the current situation of triguna research, if guidelines were drawn up, researchers would have a direction to guide their studies, at least for coming few years and be able to contribute incrementally to the field. This paper is presented in light of these considerations. We discuss the concept of triguna, characteristics of a successful personality theory and challenges in triguna research, in light of which we propose a set of eight guidelines to assist future research in the field. In addition, we discuss some of the new tools emerging from mainstream psychology, which may also be used in triguna research. Hopefully, we may look forward to some major landmarks of evidences for the triguna construct, over the coming period of time.
  11,703 1,475 1
Indian psychology, parapsychology and spiritual psychology
K Ramakrishna Rao
January-June 2013, 1(1):4-14
Science and religion are generally considered to be disparate and inconsistent, if not conflicting, attempts at understanding reality. However, they need not be so considered. Spiritual psychology may be seen as a discipline that combines in its pursuit spirituality and science. We can conceive of spiritual psychology as a science in search of the sacred. Indian psychology derived and constructed from classical Indian philosophies of mind and practices like yoga, and parapsychology as pursued in the West provide indirect support to spiritual psychology. They suggest possible existence of paranormal sources of knowing and states of consciousness that transcend the cerebro-centric conception of human nature. A meta-theory of spiritual psychology and Indian psychology presented here shows the complementarity of science and spirituality. Some of the important conceptual and methodological issues in studies of spirituality and parapsychology are discussed. The implications of these for studying and understanding parapsychological phenomena are considered.
  9,259 750 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Kāla and Mahakāla: Time and the timeless in the Vedic literature
Ramesh N Rao, Alex Hankey, HR Nagendra, R Nagarathna
January-June 2013, 1(1):40-48
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123291  
Background: Several recent experimental studies have strongly suggested that the ancient concept of 'Muhurta', or influence of starting time on outcome of a process or project, can be tested in systems in microbiology. This implies that factors connected to Jyotish astrology can act on biological systems, leading to the study of time as a heterogeneous variable in biological and social sciences. Aims: The purpose is to provide perspectives on the new results by exploring ancient conceptions of time, as recorded in various sections of the Vedic literature, with reference to conceptions of time within Vedic astrology. Materials and Methods: Various sections of the Vedic literature and associated philosophies were examined; statements concerning the nature of time were abstracted and integrated. Results: Various different conceptions of time are described, in order to show how the profound relationship between the timeless and time, first experienced in meditation, was first conceptualized and understood. The distinction between the Real and unreal, the indivisible, timeless reality underlying time, and measurable time, corresponding to mahakāla and kāla (the timeless and time), is used to define ritual time (Karma kāla), which was the original purpose of Jyotish astrology-to help guarantee the success of ritual actions. Discussion and Conclusions: Only by expanding awareness beyond time, kala, to become established in the timeless, mahakala, can an individual be liberated and go beyond the 'bite of time'.
  8,702 657 -
The chakra system as a bio-socio-psycho-spiritual model of consciousness: Anahata as heart-centered consciousness
Robert Beshara
January-June 2013, 1(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123289  
Today, to most scientific materialists the seat of consciousness is the brain. According to the dominant strand of this reductionist monist view, consciousness - and naturally the mind of which it is a part - is an epiphenomenon of the brain. This is a metaphysical assumption and as far as I know, there has not been any proof as of yet to support such a claim (aka the hard problem of consciousness). According to scientism, the mind is an illusion, albeit, a useful one from an evolutionary standpoint. This illusion - which strangely enough is not too different from the Hindu notion of maya - has helped us not only survive for thousands of years but also adapt more quickly to our environment. Even though our holographic-like representations of physical reality or the noumenal world are not accurate they are close enough to the-thing-itself that we have succeeded to control and abuse the planet and its resources while dominating other species along the way, to say the least. Why is this the case? Are we too much in our heads? Are we too caught up in our emotions? Clearly, there is an imbalance within and without us for which we are primarily responsible; the results of this global imbalance are such things as threats to biodiversity, war, poverty, and health issues to name but a few. We are using the wrong lenses metaphysically speaking and that is partially why we have been distorting reality, be it monism or dualism. The contributions of science ever since the Scientific Revolution are immense and grateful to them we are, especially in terms of their technological application. However, the dark side is that industrialization has made us more dehumanized and social media has made us more disconnected in the real world. The argument here is not whether technology is good or bad, but rather the question is how can we create eco-friendly technologies (from our cars to our cities) that are harmonious with nature in the ultimate or nondual sense. So what is missing? Perhaps the will is. Maybe we have been blinded by our selfishness to the extent that we cannot see beyond our desires. The paradigm shift hinted at here is one that is reminiscent of the Buddhist concept of the Middle Way, the goal being global coherence through individual transformation, which cannot happen unless there is balance in the first place and the key is balancing the heart.
  6,822 731 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Review of Rāgās and its Rasās in Indian music and its possible applications in therapy
Nagarajan Karuna, Thaiyar M Srinivasan, HR Nagendra
January-June 2013, 1(1):21-28
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123288  
The imbalances between our outlook toward life and insight cause stress. This could most of the times result in psychosomatic ailments. By modification of our innermost attitude, we can bring peace, satisfaction and comfort irrespective of the external environment. There are many systems of healing for countering perceived stress, which helps to manage stress as well as its impact on the systems of the body. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the Indian Rāgās and the interwoven agreeable rasās (aesthetic mood) in them. The willful submission to the notes of the music and the willingness to release the negative thought patterns may be helpful in healing physically. Based on many research made on the metaphysical causation of disease, we have attempted to list particular melody or rāgās depicting a particular aesthetic mood, which could help to heal a particular disease.
  6,743 560 -
BRIEF REPORT
Dispositional mindfulness and its relation to impulsivity in college students
Sasidharan K Rajesh, Judu V Ilavarasu, TM Srinivasan
January-June 2013, 1(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123292  
Context: Impulsivity is a fundamental component, consistently associated with understanding and diagnosis of various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-reported dispositional mindfulness and impulsivity in a sample of college students. Settings and Design: This is a correlational study using a sample of 370 undergraduate students (226 females and 144 males) from three colleges, in Kerala, India. Participants age ranged from 18 to 26 years with a mean age of 19.47 years (standard deviation = 1.46). Subjects and Methods: Participants were given questionnaire packets including demographic details, mindful attention awareness scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11) and General Health Questionnaire-12. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlations were used to examine the association between mindfulness and Impulsivity. Partial correlations were examined between impulsivity and mindfulness measures while controlling for psychological distress. Results: Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with psychological distress (r = −0.40, P < 0.01) and BIS-11 scores (BIS total: r = 0.50; attentional: r = 0.44; motor: r = −0.23 non-planning: r = 0.25, P < 0.01). Relationship remained significant between mindfulness and impulsivity while after controlling for psychological distress. Conclusions: Dispositional mindfulness related to the ability to refrain from impulsive behavior in the presence of psychological distress
  5,439 517 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Schizophrenia and yogic concepts
Hitesh Chandrakant Sheth
January-June 2013, 1(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123290  
Background: There is a great deal of overlap between the symptoms of schizophrenia and the nature of yogic experiences described in various societies and religions. Aim: This study aims to separate the symptoms of psychotic disorders from the experiences described by various yogic systems. Materials and Methods: A review of various scriptures like Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, Vedas, and other spiritual literature was done and was compared with the various scientific studies regarding yogic experiences. Results: The result shows that, there exist the abnormal behaviors, which need to be controlled by taking help from psychiatry, but there are also the genuine yogic experiences, that are often confused with the symptoms of a psychotic disorder like schizophrenia. Conclusions: The science of psychiatry is playing an important role in classifying the behavioral patterns and thus helping us to control the abnormal behavior patterns. Still, we cannot deny the fact that, the budding science in a developmental stage is unable to unravel the complete mysteries of human mind and because of that; some genuine yogic experiences are often confused with psychotic disorders.
  4,933 366 1
CONCEPT PAPER
Unearthing the upanishadic roots for "The Song of Sanyasin" of Swami Vivekananda
Rajesha Halekote Karisetty, Ramachandra G Bhat
January-June 2013, 1(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123293  
The vigorous life of a Sannyasin, an ascetic, seems to be practically difficult in this modern age. But Swami Vivekananda affirms that a life of spiritual enlightenment is very much possible in his "The Song of Sannyasin", which he had composed with 13 stanzas in July 1895 at Thousand Island Park, New York. The powerful words of Swamiji echoes the profound wisdom base from the Upanishads motivating even a normal man towards renunciation to attain the higher goal of spiritual perfection. A scholar of Vedanta, who reads this poem, will be fascinated to see how the Upanishad mantras have got translated into English through the poetic words of Swamiji. Hence this research tried to bring out the Upanishadic connection for all 13 stanzas of this poem and to establish the relevance and practical application of the age old Upanishadic wisdom.
  4,128 314 -
BOOK REVIEW
Dynamic Suryanamaskar Sun Salutations
S Bashyam
January-June 2013, 1(1):57-58
  3,633 434 -
EDITORIAL
Layers of consciousness
HR Nagendra
January-June 2013, 1(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123283  
  2,992 497 -
FROM THE EDITORS DESK
Opening a new vista
Ramachandra G Bhat
January-June 2013, 1(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123284  
  2,488 344 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Yoga as the therapy of roga: In the vision of Sri Ramakrishna, in the words of Swami Ranganathananda
Pallav Sengupta
January-June 2013, 1(1):56-56
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123295  
  2,090 244 -
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