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   2016| January-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 17, 2017

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Role of jalaneti and pranayama in allergic rhinitis with asthma
Shruti Agnihotri, Surya Kant, Veerendra Kumar Verma, Satyendra Kumar Mishra, Sarika Pandey
January-June 2016, 4(1):3-7
Allergic respiratory conditions are a major public health challenge worldwide. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation. Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. It is also an associated disease with allergic rhinitis (AR). AR is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching of the nose, and/or postnasal discharge. It is also closely related to asthma and 10%–40% of people with rhinitis have concomitant asthma Researches in this field are very limited; therefore, this review article will be helpful in updating the knowledge about disease and drugs that can help in satisfying the attending people. Yoga is one of the complementary medicines which are helpful in relaxing the muscles, releasing anxiety, improving blood circulation, respiration, etc. Yoga uses a holistic approach to promote positive health for centuries. A regular practice of jalaneti and pranayama provides the relaxation and sound sleep and works as healing therapy for AR and asthma
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Effect of stress and anxiety on 1st year medical students
Sumitra Sudharkodhy, Karthiyanee Kutty, MS Vinutha Shankar, NJ Patil
January-June 2016, 4(1):24-27
Context: Medical students are exposed to various stresses such as demanding medical education and different teaching protocols.[4],[5] Heart rate variability (HRV) is a simple and noninvasive indicator for the detection of cardiac autonomic dysfunction. This study was done to assess the effect of stress and anxiety on HRV. Aims: This study aims to assess the perceived stress, anxiety, and HRV in 1st year medical students and to correlate stress and anxiety to HRV. Subjects and Methods: The study included 110, 1st year MBBS students, excluding students with any infections, metabolic diseases, cardiorespiratory diseases, and medications which alter the autonomic functions. Anxiety and stress were measured using Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires, respectively. Based on the scores, students were assigned to stress and nonstress group and anxious and nonanxious group. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded using a house built analog ECG amplifier, which was further analyzed using HRV analysis software. Results: STAI and PSS were analyzed; those who have STAI score of above 40 come under anxious group and those with PSS score of 13 and above comes under stress group. Sixty-two percent students are both anxious as well as stressed. The parameters, namely, mean heart rate, standard deviation of normal to normal, root mean square successive difference (RMSSD), low-frequency (LF) normalized unit, and high-frequency (HF) normalized unit were correlated with stress and anxiety scores. During state-anxiety, there is a significant increase in heart rate, RMSDD, LF domain, and LF/HF and during trait-anxiety, there is significant increase in RMSDD and LF/HF ratio. In this study, perceived stress is not significant with HRV. Conclusions: This study shows that during anxiety there is increased activity toward sympathetic, but no difference in parasympathetic activity and during perceived stress, there is no significance with HRV.
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Efficacy of vedic mathematics and yogic breathing in school children: A pilot study
Vasant Venkatraman Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra
January-June 2016, 4(1):16-23
Background: Anxiety can cause problems in examination performance, particularly mathematics. This study aimed to compare two methods of reducing math anxiety in 8th–10th standards, Yoga pranayama and Vedic mathematics (VM). We report a randomized controlled trial comparing effects of these on working memory, math anxiety, and cognitive flexibility. Subjects and Methods: Forty higher secondary students, resident at Sri Sai Angels School Chikkamagaluru were randomly assigned to Yogic Breathing, VM, and Jogging (JG) groups with 14, 13, and 13 children, respectively. Intervention: Children in Yoga breathing (YB) and VM groups attended 7-days' workshop on Pranayama and VM, respectively. Others went JG every day. Assessments: Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised, STROOP test, Children's Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire, and digit span test were administered pre and post the intervention. Analysis: SPSS-17 was used for nonparametric pre-post comparison tests (Wilcoxon) and group comparisons tests (Mann–Whitney). Results: Math anxiety decreased most in VM (−11.77 ± 10.47; P < 0.01). Others: YB (−4.08 ± 4.99; P < 0.05); JG, (−3.75 ± 16.94). Changes in cognitive flexibility and reaction to cognitive stress were VM (++9.77 ± 5; P < 0.001); YB (+5.38 ± 5.38; P < 0.01) and JG (+8.58 ± 9.91; P < 0.05). Self-defeating cognition scores decreased in YB (−1.77 ± 1.83; P < 0.01) and VM (−1.38 ± 3.2), but not JG (+0.67 ± 1.44). Digit span scores were similar in all groups. Conclusion: VM and YB showed small improvement in cognitive skills and decrease in math anxiety compared to JG. The study suggests that a 7-day VM workshop can decrease math anxiety, which might help enhance cognitive skills. Calming effects of pranayama practices are the probable cause for YB group improvements.
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Facets of Nidrā - in Yogasūtra: Analysis based on the views from Vyasa's commentary and its sub-commentaries
Jayaraman Mahadevan
January-June 2016, 4(1):8-15
Good sleep is an important indicator and also a requisite of good health. Yoga sūtras discuss the concept of Nidrā. A survey of commentaries of Yoga sūtras reveals elaborate discussions, which are seldom noticed, regarding the concept. There are more than a dozen commentaries in Saṃskṛta on Yoga sūtras. However, this article presents the views of Vyāsa, the principal commentator and the four available subcommentaries to Vyāsa's commentary on the -Nidrā. All later commentaries respect and follow Vyāsa's commentary. The study reveals that Vyāsas commentary and its subcommentaries address 's commentary and its subcommentaries address aspects on Nidrā including – Why Nidrā after Pramāṇa, Viparyaya and Vikalpa? Is Nidrā a Vṛtti?, Is Nidrā deep sleep or does it include dream state also? How does one fall asleep – the Yogic way, Guṇa-based 3-fold classification of Deep Sleep, Half Deep Sleep and Complete Deep Sleep, Nidrā vis-a-vis the states of Ekāgratā, Niruddha and Kaivalya and why should sleep be restrained like any other Vṛtti? Thus, understanding various aspects of Nidrā indeed would be handy in the correct practice of the technique based on Nidrā (PYS 1.6, Patañjali, 2015, p.24)[2] to attain the goals specified in the Yoga sūtras. Therapeutically, the implications of the 3-fold classification of Nidrā based on Guṇas need to be developed into an elaborate model that includes the factors that induce such kinds of sleep and ways in which one can move toward the desired (Sāttvic) state of sleep, etc. A collaborative approach with allied disciplines such as Āyurveda on this topic might prove to be more beneficial.
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It is to spiritualize the science
Ramachandra G Bhat
January-June 2016, 4(1):1-2
  1,229 144 -