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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-74

The why and how of a yogasūtra commentary – A study of relevant introductory verses and nomenclatures and of 15 saṃskṛta yogasūtra commentaries


Department of Research, Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission13-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance17-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication21-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jayaraman Mahadevan
31, 4th Cross Street, RK Nagar, Chennai - 600 028, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_23_19

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  Abstract 


Twenty-eight Saṃskṛta commentaries are known to exist for Yogasūtras. Most of these Saṃskṛta commentaries have remained untranslated and unstudied. Some among of them are yet to be published. Even in traditional centers of Yogic learning in the current era, we find this literature only occasionally consulted. It is necessary that the importance of these untapped or not yet well-tapped sources of Yogic knowledge be explored and highlighted. It is with this purpose that this paper has been written. To this end, the purpose and approach of these Classical Saṃskṛta commentaries that can be gleaned from the introductory verses are examined and made known through this paper. Of the known 28 commentaries 15 Saṃskṛta commentaries that have been published (most of them without translations) could be accessed for this study. The 15 Saṃskṛta commentaries are divided into two parts. (1) The principal commentary of Sage Vyāsa and its subcommentaries – 6 texts (2) Commentaries directly on Yogasūtras – 9 texts. The discussion in the paper brings out the approach and purpose of the Yogasūtra commentaries right from the 4rd century CE to the 20st century CE. This paper has revealed the nature of language used the dimensions of Yogasūtras explored and the thoroughness of approach adopted by these classical commentaries. This indicates the potential of the yet to be adequately tapped valuable resources of Yoga philosophy.

Keywords: Yogasūtras, classical commentaries, Sanskrit


How to cite this article:
Mahadevan J. The why and how of a yogasūtra commentary – A study of relevant introductory verses and nomenclatures and of 15 saṃskṛta yogasūtra commentaries. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2020;8:69-74

How to cite this URL:
Mahadevan J. The why and how of a yogasūtra commentary – A study of relevant introductory verses and nomenclatures and of 15 saṃskṛta yogasūtra commentaries. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 26];8:69-74. Available from: https://www.ijoyppp.org/text.asp?2020/8/2/69/292940




  Introduction Top


Twenty eight Saṃskṛta commentaries are known to exist for Yogasūtras.[1] Most of these Saṃskṛta commentaries have remained untranslated and unstudied. Some among of them are yet to be published. Even in traditional centers of Yogic learning in the current era, we find this literature only occasionally consulted. It is necessary that the importance of these untapped or not yet well-tapped sources of Yogic knowledge be explored and highlighted. It is with this purpose that this paper has been written.


  Approach Top


To this end, the purpose and approach of these Classical Saṃskṛta commentaries that can be gleaned from the introductory verses are examined and made known through this paper.

In Saṃskṛta texts, there is a convention of composing introductory verses. These verses contain-(āśīrnamaskriyā vastu nirdeśo vāpi tanmukham-kāvyādarśa 1.14)-blessings, salutations, or description of the subject matter of the text.[2]

The focus of this study is only on those introductory verses of Saṃskṛta commentaries of Yogasūtra that discuss the subject matter. In those verses, the commentators themselves commit the purpose of their commentaries and also the approach of their work. Along with this, the nomenclature given to each of these commentaries is also sometimes instructive of the direction of interpretation. These will also be discussed which could reveal the unique value of those classical texts of Yoga.


  Limitation Top


Of the known 28 commentaries fifteen Saṃskṛta commentaries that have been published (most of them without translations) could be accessed for this study.


  Commentaries With Relevant Introductory Verses Top


The fifteen Saṃskṛta commentaries are divided into two parts.

  1. The principal commentary of Sage Vyāsa and its subcommentaries – 6 texts
  2. Commentaries directly on Yogasūtras– 9 texts.


Under the first category, we see Sage Vyāsa's Commentary and its four subcommentaries and one subcommentary on Tattvavaiśāradī (one of the subcommentaries of Sage Vyāsa's commentary). The names of the six commentaries are as follows-

  1. Yoga-sūtra-bhāṣya of Sage Vyāsa


    1. Tattva-vaiśāradī of Vācaspati-miśra


      1. Pātañjala-rahasyam of Rāghavānanda-sarasvatī-


    2. Vivaraṇa of Śaṅkara
    3. Yoga-vārtṭīkām of Vijñāna-bhikṣu
    4. Bhāsvatī of Hariharānandāraṇya.


Under the second category-the nine direct independent commentaries on Yogasūtras that could be consulted are as follows:

  1. Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja
  2. Maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-sarasvatī
  3. Pradīpikā of Bhāva-gaṇeśa
  4. Yoga-siddhānta-candrikā of Nārāyaṇa-tīrtha
  5. Sūtrārtha-bodhinī of of Nārāyaṇa-tīrtha
  6. Vṛttiḥ of Nāgojī-bhaṭṭa
  7. Yoga-sudhākaraḥ of Sadāśivendra-sarasvatī
  8. Yoga-candrikā of Ananta-deva-paṇḍita
  9. Yoga-vallī-vyākhyā of Tirumalai-kṛṣṇamācārya.



  Introductory Verses That Discuss the Subject Matter In first Category Commentaries Top


Let us now consider the first category and the contents there in a chronological manner.

Sage Vyāsa's commentary (4th– 5th century CE)

There is no introductory verse in Sage Vyāsa's commentary that indicates the subject matter or approach of the commentary. This commentary is called as Vyāsa-Bhāṣya. Bhāṣya is a technical term. It is a text that is generally connected with the Sūtra text. It is defined as:[3]

Sūtrārtho varṇyate yatra padaiḥ sūtrānusāribhiḥ |

Svapadāni ca varṇyante bhāṣyaṃ bhāṣyavido viduḥ. ||

That text is called as a Bhāṣya where– the meaning of the Sūtra is explained with words that are in accordance with the (import of) the Sūtras. Further, the words of the commentator themselves are also explained.

Sub-commentaries of Sage Vyāsa's commentary

Tattvavaiśāradī vyākhyā (9–10th century CE)

The following is the verse from the introductory portion of this commentary:

Natvā patañjalimṛṣiṃ vedavyāsena bhāṣite |

Saṃkṣiptaspaṣṭabahvarthā bhāṣye vyākhyā vidhāsyate ||.

Saluting Sage Patañjali, a brief and clear explanation with multiple meanings to the commentary of Vedavyāsa, is being done.

As evident from the introductory verse given above Vacaspati Mishra names his commentary a Vyākhyā. Vyākhyā means explanation.[4] Further, the title Tattvavaiśāradī means (an exposition) that (which) leads to expertise in the tenets (of Yoga)

Vivarais (11-14th century CE)

Although there are a couple of verses in the beginning in the form of salutation to Īśvara, one does not find a verse that presents the approach of the commentator in the work.

This text attributed to Śrīśaṅkara is titled as Vivaraṇa. Vivaraṇa and Vyākhyā are treated as Synonyms in the śabdakalpadruma. Even Nyāyakośa[5] simply states Vivaraṇam is-granthaviśeṣaḥ-a type of text.

Yogavārṭgav (15th century CE)

The following verse from the text presents the approach of the Vijñānabhikṣu in the commentary:

Śrīpātañjalabhāṣyadugdhajaladhirvijñānaratnākaro

Vedavyāsamunīndrabuddhikhanito yogīndrapeyāmṛtaḥ |

Bhūdevairamṛtaṃ tadatra mathituṃ vijñānavijñairiha ||

Śrīmadvārtṭīkāmandaro gurutaro manthānadaṇḍo'rpyate



The milky ocean of commentary on Patañjali's text is full of precious stones of experiential wisdom. It was explored by the intellect of Sage VedaVyāsa. It is nectar-like and is drinkable by the great Yogins. For the Gods of this world (Brahmins) who are enlightened, to churn (the milky ocean of Vyāsa's commentary), the Mandara (mountain) like Vārtṭīkā which is the churning stick is offered.

The title given by Vijñānabhikṣu to his explanation is Yoga-Vārtṭīkā. Vārtṭīkā is defined as:[6]

Uktānuktaduruktānāṃ cintā yatra pravartate ||

Taṃ granthaṃ vārtṭīkāṃ prāhuḥ vārtṭīkājñā manīṣiṇaḥ . ||

That text which deals with the said (incompletely), unsaid and wrongly said aspects of the source text is called as Vārtṭīkā by scholars.

Bhāsvatī (19th century CE)

This text has two verses that speak about the nature of the content herein.

Ratnākaraḥ pravādānāṃ bhāṣyaṃ vyāsavinirmitam |

Śiṣyāṇāṃ sukhabodhārthaṃ ṭīkeyaṃ tatra bhāsvatī ||

The commentary of Vyāsa is like the gem studded ocean that contains a lot of enlightening discourses. To make it's understanding easy for students this commentary called Bhāsvatī is composed.

Upodghātapradhāneyaṃ saṅkṣiptā padabodhinī |

Śaṅkāvikalpahīnā'stu mudāyai yogināṃ satām . ||

This commentary is focused on appropriate illustrations. It is brief, and explains the meanings of the words. Let this be free of doubts and let it not leave anything to the imagination of the readers. Let this be for the happiness of the noble Yogins.

As evident from the first verse above Bhāsvatī is a Ṭīkā. Ṭīkā is defined in Nyāyakośa as:[7]

Mūlagranthasyāpratipattivipratipattyanyathāpratipattinivāraṇena tatkarturabhipretārthasya śabdāntareṇa vivaraṇam.

Ṭīkā is an explanation of the nature of Clarification-where the non-comprehension, comprehension of the opposite meaning and comprehension of unintended meaning of the source text-are removed and the intended meaning of the author (of the source text) is explained in words other than those used by the author.

Bhāsvatī means that which is endowed with light.

Subcommentary of Tattvavaiśāradī

Pātañjalarahasya (1550-1600 CE)

The following is verse that introduces the purpose of the text:

Natvā hareḥ pādarajāṃsi śambhoḥ śaurergaṇeśasya mahāvibhūteḥ ||

Patañjalervyāsamuneśca vakṣye vācaspaternyūna samarpaṇāya ||

After saluting the dust of the feet of Lord śiva viṣṇu and gaṇeśa of Great powers, Patañjali and also Sage Vyāsa-to make up for the lacunae of Vācaspati (Miśra), I shall speak (in the form commentary).


  Introductory Verses That Discuss the Subject Matter in Second Category Commentaries Top


Let us consider the references from the direct independent commentaries on Yogasūtras.

Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja (11th century CE)

One finds two verses with rather sharp views that portray the approach of the commentary.

durbodhaṃ yadatīva taddhi jahati spaṣṭārthamityuktibhiḥ spaṣṭārtheṣvativistṛtiṃ vidadhati vyarthaiḥ samāsādikaiḥ |

asthāne'nupayogibhiśca bahubhirjalpairbhramaṃ tanvate śrotṝṇāmiti vastuviplavakṛtaḥ sarve'pi ṭīkākṛtaḥ. ||

Portions that are difficult to comprehend are overlooked by stating “the meaning is very clear”. Those portions that are clear are unnecessarily elaborated. With utterances that have compound terms in unsuitable contexts confusion is created in the (minds of the) listeners.(Thus) all these (earlier?) commentators destro]y the subject.

Utsṛjya vistaramudasya vikalpajālaṃ phalguprakāśamavadhārya ca samyagarthān |

Santaḥ patañjalimate vivṛtirmayeyamātanyate budhajanapratibodhahetuḥ. ||

Avoiding lengthy discussion, shunning web of confusion, indicating the useless sections (?) and understanding the meanings well, following the path of Sage Patañjali this explanation is being done to facilitate the understanding of (the Sūtras by) the learned.

The title of the work is Rāja-mārtāṇḍa– the royal Sun. This might indicate that the commentary throws light on the views of Sage Patañjali very clearly like the Sun. The term Rāja (Royal) indicates it being composed by King Bhoja.

Yoga-maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-sarasvatī (16th century CE)

The verse that conveys the approach of the commentary is:

Patañjaliṃ sūtrakṛtaṃ praṇamya vyāsaṃ muniṃ bhāṣyakṛtaṃ ca bhaktyā |

Bhāṣyānugāṃ yogamaṇiprabhākhyāṃ vṛttiṃ vidhāsyāmi yathāmatīḍyām ||

After saluting with devotion Sage Patañjali the writer of the Sūtras, Sage Vyāsa the commentator I write a gloss called Yoga-maṇi-prabhā that follows the views of Vyāsa's commentary, which will be worship worthy.

The title of work Yoga-maṇi-prabhā means– the splendor of the jewel of Yoga.

Pradīpikā by Bhāvagaṇeśa (1600-1700 CE)

The two verses that convey the approach of the commentary are as follows-

Mandadhīsukhabodhāya sārārthaspaṣṭabhāṣiṇīm |

Bhāvagaṇeśaḥ kurute yogasūtreṣu dīpikām ||

To facilitate easy understanding for dull intellects, Bhāvagaṇeśa has composed this dīpikā which speaks the essence (of Yogasūtra) in a clear way.

Bhāṣye parīkṣito'yo'rtho vārttike gurubhiḥ svayam |

Saṅkṣiptaḥ siddhavatso'syāṃ yuktiṣūktādhikā kvacit ||

Those concepts of the commentary (of Vyāsa) that have been examined in the Vārtṭīkā of (my) teacher (Vijñānabhikṣu)– are considered as proven/established. They are briefly stated and a few (favorable) arguments are also advanced (in this commentary by me).

The title (Pra) dīpikā means light. It is supposed to shed light on the Yogasūtras.

Yogasiddhāntacandrikā by Nārāyaṇatīrtha (18th century CE)

The following two verses bring out the approach and objective of the commentator in Yogasiddhāntacandrikā:

Yogaṃ prāha pitāmaho'tha bhagavān śeṣaḥ svayaṃ saṃyyamaiḥ

Sūtrairbhāṣyamiṣeṇa sarvavidito vyāsaḥ samastaṃ param||

Tadbhāṣyaṃ viśadīcakāra matimān miśro'tha bhikṣustathā

Durbodhaṃ hi tathāpi mūḍhamatibhiḥ gūḍhaṃ rahasyaṃ yataḥ ||

Atra sūtre&#xs7779;u gūḍhārthadyotikāṃ tanute parām |

Vrttiṃ nārayaṇo bhikṣuḥ sugamāṃ harituṣṭaye . ||

Yoga has been stated by Brahman, the creator, and Lord śeṣa, in their meditative state in the form of Sūtra. Vyāsa, the omniscient, in the form of commentary explained it. The intelligent miśra and bhikṣu also have explained it. Still, it is unintelligible to some who are ignorant, because, the subject matter is hidden and subtle.

Hence mendicant Nārāyaṇa, pens this gloss that is easily comprehendible which presents the hidden meanings to contentment of Lord Hari.

Yogasiddhāntacandrikā means moonlight on the tenets of Yoga.

Sutrārthabodhinī by Nārāyaṇatīrtha (18th century CE)

This is another commentary by Nārāyaṇatīrtha. The purpose of the commentary is presented in the verse below-

Śrīkṛṣṇaṃ saccidānandaṃ natvā'tha kriyate mayā |

Yogasūtreṣu vyākhyānaṃ saṅkṣepeṇa na vistarāt.

After saluting śrīkṛṣṇa who himself is saccidānanda (existence, consciousness and bliss), a brief and not a detailed commentary on Yogasūtras is being composed by me.

The title means– the text that explains the meaning of the Sūtras.

Vrtti of Nāgojī-bhatta (18th century CE)

The title simply means a gloss and no verses that elucidate the approach of the commentator is found in the edition consulted.

Yogasudhākara by sadaśivendra sarasvatī (18th century CE)

The verse that conveys the authors approach to the commentary is as follows:

Śrīmaddeśikavaktrābjānniśamyātha viloḍya tām |

Phaṇīndrabhaṇiteḥ kācidvṛttirārabhyate mayā . ||

After having listened from the teacher on Sage Patañjali's teachings and churned it, a gloss on it is commenced by me.

The title– Yogasudhākara– means the nectar of Yoga.

Yogacandrikā Anantadeva (19th century CE)

The verse that contains the statement of purpose of the commentary is as follows-

Guruṃ praṇāmya sūtrārthacandrikā kriyate mayā |

Ananteneśvarapratītyai saccidānandarūpiṇam. ||

After saluting the Guru who is saccidānanda (existence, consciousness and bliss) commentary Sūtra-artha-candrikā (moonlight on the Meaning on Sūtras) is being composed by me, Ananta, for the Joy of Īśvara.

The meaning of the title has been presented in the translation of the verse above.

Yogavallīvyākhyā of Tirumalai kṛṣṇamācārya (20th century CE)

The following verse from the work (1.3) indicates the purpose of the work-

Phullapuṣpāyate satsu yogavallī nirantaram |

Saiva bhallāyate kṣudrayogimānavasammukhe . ||

This creeper of Yoga is like the blooming flowers towards the good-natured. But for those Yogis with ill intentions, it is like a crescent shaped arrow.

Yoga-vallī-means the creeper of Yoga. Probably the word Creeper is used to imply the lucidity/gentleness in approach in explaining the concepts.


  Summary Top


The summary section presents the summary under two heads-[Table 1]
Table 1: Table of significant Inputs from introductory verses of commentaries of Yogasutras

Click here to view


  1. First category commentaries
  2. Second category commentaries.


After that consolidation of views of first and second categories of commentaries of Yogasūtras.

Summary of views on first category commentaries

The following points can be presented as a summary of approaches of primary and secondary commentaries on Yogasūtras based on references presented above:

For primary commentaries:

  1. Explaining meaning of the Sūtras with words that are in accordance to (import of) the Sūtras
  2. Self-clarification of the newly used terms by the commentator while explaining the Sūtras
  3. Brief and clear explanation bringing out multiple layers of meanings.


Secondary commentaries.

  1. To complete the incompletely stated aspects
  2. To state the completely omitted aspects
  3. To correct the wrongly stated aspects.


Applicable to both types of commentaries.

  1. Usage of appropriate illustrations
  2. Expressions should be free from ambiguity
  3. Nothing should be left to the imagination of the readers.


Summary of views on second category commentaries

The following do's and don'ts while composing a commentary emerges by the analyzing the above verses by various authors:

Dos in a commentary.

  1. Lucidity-accessible language even to the lay readers
  2. Brevity in expression
  3. Explanation in accordance with the view of Sage Patañjali
  4. Hidden or subtle meanings brought out
  5. Expressions are clear.


Don'ts in a commentary.

  1. Not to skip difficult portions in the Sūtra text
  2. Not to unnecessarily elaborate on portions that are clear
  3. No ambiguity in explanation
  4. Prolixity has to be avoided.



  Consolidation of Views Of first and Second Categories of Commentaries of Yogasūtras Top


For commentaries directly on the Sūtras

Dos'

  1. Explaining meaning of the Sūtras with words that are in accordance to (import of) the Sūtras
  2. Self-clarification of the newly used terms by the commentator while explaining the Sūtras
  3. Easy and accessible language
  4. Brief and clear explanation bringing out multiple layers of meanings
  5. Hidden or subtle meanings to be brought out
  6. Appropriate illustrations/examples should be used.


Don'ts

  1. Difficult portions in the Sūtra text should not be skipped
  2. Unwarranted elaboration on portions that are clear to be avoided
  3. There should be no ambiguity in explanation
  4. Prolixity of words are to be avoided
  5. Nothing should be left to the imagination of the readers (everything has to be explained).


For sub-commentaries

Although the do's and don'ts that have been stated for the commentaries will be applicable appropriately to the secondary commentaries also the following are the special ideas that are to be noted in the composition of a secondary commentary:

  1. To complete the incompletely stated aspects
  2. To bring light the completely omitted aspects
  3. To correct the wrongly stated aspects.



  Conclusion Top


The discussion above has brought out the nature of language used, the dimensions of Yogasūtras explored and the thoroughness of approach adopted by these classical commentaries right from the 4rd century CE to 20st century CE.

Looking at the approaches committed by these commentators that emerged through this paper, study of these works individually and also efforts to consolidate the insights of all these works towards getting a complete picture of views of all the commentators, promise to lead to valuable practical and deep insights in the field of Yoga philosophy.

Apart from this, this study also leads to a few more possibilities in textual research of Yogasūtra. The article is concluded by drawing the attention of scholars involved in the field textual research in Yoga Philosophy:

  1. Though these values are committed to by the classical Saṃskṛta commentaries in the beginning – have they stood by these standards during the exposition-is a question to be examined. This opens up a new area of work. Each of the classical commentaries can be examined based the standards committed to by the respective commentators and their quality and contribution can be assessed
  2. Coming to the current era, can these numerous current day commentaries that have emerged also be subjected to these standards of evaluations to ascertain their value? – this is also to be explored
  3. Finally, Can these be prescribed as methodological guidelines for the students and researchers in the field of Yoga for a structured understanding of Yogasūtra literature?



  Editions of the Commentaries Consulted Top


  1. The edition consulted for yoga-sūtra-bhāṣyam of Sage Vyāsa with the sub-commentaries-Tattva-vaiśāradī of Vācaspati-miśra, yoga-vārtṭīkām of Vijñāna-bhikṣu, Bhāsvatī of Hariharānandāraṇya and pātañjala-rahasyam of Rāghavānanda-sarasvatī– is Śāṡtrī GD, editor. Sāṃga Yogadarśana or Yoga Darśana of Patañjali, with the Scholium of Vyāsa and the Commentaries Tattvavaiśāradī, Pātañjalarahasya, Yogavārṭīkā and Bhāsvatī of Vācaspati Miṡra, Rāghavānanda Sarasvatī, Vijñānabhikṡu and Hariharānanda Āraṇya Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan; 2007
  2. The edition consulted for Vivaraṇa of Śaṅkara is-Rama Sastri and Krishnamurthi Sastri, S. R.(Eds.) Pātn̄jala [sic]-yogasūtra-bhāṣya Vivaraṇam of Śaṅkara-Bhagavatpāda Critically Edited with Introduction, Madras: Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 1952
  3. The edition consulted for six commentaries that include-Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja, maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-sarasvatī, pradīpikā of Bhāva-gaṇeśa, vṛttiḥ of Nāgojī-bhaṭṭa, yoga-sudhākaraḥ of Sadāśivendra-sarasvatī and yoga-candrikā of Ananta-deva-paṇḍita-is śāstrī, paṇḍita ḍhuṇḍhirāja (Edited with Notes by), Yogasūtram by Maharṣi patañjali, with Six commentaries, Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja, pradīpikā of Bhāva-gaṇeśa, vṛttiḥ of Nāgojī-bhaṭṭa, maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-yati, candrikā of Ananta-deva-paṇḍita, yoga-sudhākaraḥ of Sadāśivendra-sarasvatī, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Reprint 2009.
  4. The edition consulted for-yoga-siddhānta-candrikā and sūtrārtha-bodhinī of Nārāyaṇa-tīrtha is– Gopālabhaṭṭa, Paṇḍitaratnam, Yogasiddhāntacandrikā and, Sutrārthabodhinī by Nārāyaṇatīrtha-yogadarśanam, Benares: Chukhambā book Depot, 1910
  5. The edition consulted for yoga-vallī-vyākhyā of Tirumalai-kṛṣṇamācārya is- Krishnamacharya, Yogacarya Sri T, Patañjali YogaSūtras, Samadhi Padam, Sanskrit Commentary by Yogavalli, Tamil Translation by Dr V Varadachari, Madras: Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, 1988.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Larson GJ, Bhattacharya R. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. V. 7. Yoga: India's Philosophy of Meditation. Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, Reprint: 2016. p. 9-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shastri, Rangacharya Raddi, editor. Kavyadarsha of Dandin: Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; 1938. p. 16.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jhālākikāra B. Nyāyakośa, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune; 1928. p. 627.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Deva, Radhakanta R. Śabdakalpadruma, Varanasi :Chowkhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan: 1967;4:545.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jhālākikāra B. Nyāyakośa. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; 1928: 777.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jhālākikāra B. Nyāyakośa. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; 1928:741.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jhālākikāra B. Nyāyakośa. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; 1928: 306.  Back to cited text no. 7
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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