International Journal of Yoga - Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2013  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75--81

Anantasamäpatti - A technique prescribed by Pataïjali for the practice of äsana: An analysis of traditional literature


M Jayaraman 
 Department of Research, Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. M Jayaraman
Department of Research, Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, No. 31, 4th Cross Street, R.K. Nagar, Chennai - 600 028, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Introduction: Āsana is an important constituent of Yoga. The impact of Anantasamāpatti, a technique for the practice of āsana prescribed by patañ jali, in the practice of Yogāsana remains to be scientifically assessed. Scientific verification presupposes conceptual clarity. A cursory survey of contemporary interpretations reveals that Anantasamāpatti has been represented variously. Objectives and Method: In the light of this contemporary uncertainty, effort is made to refer to and analyse the traditional view point which is preserved in the form of Sanskrit commentaries regarding the meaning and mechanism of working of this technique to assist better understanding and implementation of this most ancient technique in the practice of Yogāsana. Result: Contemporary uncertainty regarding Ananatasamāpatti seems to stem from traditional sources. Conclusion: Based on the literary evidences Ananta is the probable reading and the meaning seems to be Śeṣa. Samāpatti is visualization of oneself as firm and strong like Śeṣa. The mechanism of working seems to be the effect of the mental visualization on physical firmness. And this requires to be practiced along with prayantaśaithilya.



How to cite this article:
Jayaraman M. Anantasamäpatti - A technique prescribed by Pataïjali for the practice of äsana: An analysis of traditional literature.Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2013;1:75-81


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Jayaraman M. Anantasamäpatti - A technique prescribed by Pataïjali for the practice of äsana: An analysis of traditional literature. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2022 May 19 ];1:75-81
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Full Text

 Introduction



Äsana is an important constituent of Yoga. The role of äsana as a therapeutic tool has been and is being actively evaluated worldwide. Yogasütras of Pataïjali, the earliest codified treatise on yoga, presents twin techniques for practice of äsana namely Prayatnaçaithilya and Anantasamäpatti. [1] This paper [2] discusses the second technique Anantasamäpatti.

In this era of scientific validation of Yogic practices, it is to be noted that the impact of Prayatnaçaithilya and Anantasamäpatti in the practice of Yogäsana remains to be assessed. Scientific verification presupposes conceptual clarity. It has been observed that the sütra that mentions Anantasamäpatti has "fanciful interpretations." [3]

A cursory survey of contemporary interpretations of Yogasütra reveals that the term Ananta that forms part of Anantasamäpatti has been represented as (a) Infinity, [4] (b) self, [5] (c) Präëa, [6] (d) Kuëòaliné-çakti, [7] and (e) Çeña, the king of serpents. [8] As a consequence, the technique and its implementation have also been presented variously.

In the light of this contemporary uncertainty, effort is made in this paper to refer to the traditional view point which is preserved in the form of Sanskrit commentaries regarding the meaning and mechanism of working of this technique to assist better understanding and implementation of this most ancient technique in the practice of äsana effectively. To this end, views from 10 [9] Sanskrit commentaries of the Yogasütra are presented and analyzed.

 Traditional Sources



The Yogasütra commentaries took up for discussion in this paper range from 350 CE to 1800 CE. [10] Some of these are direct commentaries upon the Yogasütra while some others are sub-commentaries to Vyäsa's commentary (Vyäsa is considered the principal or earliest commentator on Yogasütra [11] ). The views in these commentaries are presented in the order of chronology.

Vyäsa (350-400 CE): Or/and the mind that has attained Samäpatti [12] in Ananta produces the posture [13]Väcaspati Miçra [14] (850-950 CE): Or/and the mind that attains Samäpatti in king of serpants who, with his very firm thousand hoods, is holding the universe, produces äsana [15]Bhoja (1050 CE): [16] When the mind focuses on the infiniteness of äkäça and such other things and attains identity with it, then since the identification with the body does not exist, the practice of äsana will not be painful [17]Çaìkara (1401-1500 CE): [18] Anata refers to the universe. The state of being ananta is änantya. The mind that attains Samäpatti on that becomes pervasive and attains the state of (vastness of) the universe, produces the posture, makes it firm [19]Vijïänabhikñu [20] (1550 CE): Even if one does strenous work before the practice of äsana, when the mind attains Samäpatti, practicing Dhäraëä (fixing the mind) and gets merged into the form of the most firm Çeñanäga who sustains the earth (on his hood), äsana is produced. It may be due to the blessing of Ananta or due to the (effect of) visuvalization of homogeinty or due to some unseen (merit) [21]Rämänanda (1550-1600 CE): [22] When the mind practices Samäpatti in Ananta who is the head of the serpents, who is firmly holding the universe with thousand hoods, the identification with body ceases and through that pain due to practice of äsana does not shoot up and hence success in äsana is attained [23]Bhävagaëeça (1600-1700 CE): [24] Anatasamäpatti is practicing Dhäraëä (fixing the mind) in the firmest serpent Çeña who holds the earth [25]Näräyaëatértha (1600-1700 CE): [26] The views of Näräyaëatértha are identical to the views of Vijïänabhikñu [27]Nägojibhaööa (1700-1750 CE): [28] The views of Nägojibhaööa are identical to the views of Bhävagaëeça [29]Sadäçivabrahmendra (1700-1800 CE): [30] Ananta is the one who is holds the universe by his thousand hoods. Meditating that "I am Ananta" is Samäpatti. By this, unseen merit is accrued that will lead to success in äsana. [31]

 Observations and Analysis



A noteworthy point made by Vyäsa is - it is the mind (involved in the practice of Anantasamäpatti) that produces the posture (cittam nirvartayati). This clearly hints that Anantasamäpatti is the activity of the mind. This fixes the scope of interpretation of the term. All the sub-commentators and independent commentators follow this view of Vyäsa and treat Anantasamäpatti as a mental technique for attaining perfection in äsana. This is one commonality among all the commentators regarding this technique. However, there are many aspects of divergences. They can be classified under four heads:

Ananta or ÄnantyaSamäpattiThe mechanism of working of AnantasamäpattiIs Anantasamäpatti optional?

Ananta and Änantya

Anantasamäpatti is a compound word. The first member of the compound is Ananta. The commentaries presented above indicate the existence of various readings and meanings for the first member of the compound. The same is tabulated in [Table 1].{Table 1}

From [Table 1], the views of the commentators can be grouped under two heads: (a) Ananta - Vyäsa, Väcaspati Miçra, Vijïänabhikñu, Rämänanda, Bhävagaëeça, Näräyaëatértha, Nägojibhaööa, and Sadäçivabrahmendra and (b) Änantya - Bhoja and ÇaìkaraThough Vyäsa presents the reading as Ananta, it is only later that the meaning of the term Çeña emerges (Väcaspati Miçra)Bhoja is the first among the commentators to propound the meaning of the term Änantya. Except one (Çaìkara), all later commentaries (consulted for this paper) accept the views of Väcaspati Miçra, including Sadäçivabrahmendra who is considered an advaitin in the tradition of ÇaìkaraThough Bhoja and Çaìkara concur in the reading of the term and its meaning, their approach seems to be independent.

The term Samäpatti

Unlike the first term, the second term of the compound (Anantasamäpatti) has been uniformly presented by all the commentators as Samäpatti. The views of the commentators on "Samäpatti" are tabulated in [Table 2].{Table 2}

Pataïjali had defined Samäpatti [33] as "the (clear/total) reflection of the knower, the instruments of knowledge or the object of knowledge (in the mind) from where the mental processes (våttis) have dwindled and which is like a clear/pure crystal.0" The interpretation of the commentators on this Samäpatti can be classified into three based on the above tabulation.

Samäpatti as Tädätmya

Most of the commentators have tried to follow the definition of Pataïjali. They use the word Tädätmya (identification of the mind with the object of meditation) to explain Samäpatti. But it is interesting to note that various terms such as Vyäpya, Dhäraëä, and Avadhäna are used by commentators during the description of Samäpatti. These words come before the term Tädätmya in the respective commentaries.

Samäpatti as Dhäraëä

Bhävagaëeça, followed by Nägojibhaööa, restricts the meaning of the term to Dhäraëä.

Samäpatti as Bhävanä/Dhyäna

Though Vijïänabhikñu also uses the term Tädätmya and follows the meaning provided by Pataïjali, he also provides hints to a different meaning to the term Samäpatti. While describing the mechanism of working of Anantasamäpatti, he indicates this to be a Bhävanä (visualization) [34] (visualizing oneself as the firm Ananta). Though Sadäçivabrahmendra states it to be Dhyäna, his description indicates that he also intends it to be a Bhävanä.

It is to be noted that Çaìkara and Bhoja (who present the reading as änantya) present the description of Samäpatti under classification "Samäpatti as Tädätmya". Those that accept Ananta (Çeña) present Samäpatti under "Samäpatti as Tädätmya", "Samäpatti as Bhävanä/Dhyäna", and "Samäpatti as Bhävanä/Dhyäna".

The mechanism of working of Anantasamäpatti

Five commentaries have proposed a mechanism of working of this technique. Out of these, two models emerge: (1) Bhoja and Rämänanda [Figure 1] and (2) Vijïänabhikñu, Näräyaëatértha, and Sadäçivabrahmendra [Figure 2].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

The views in the above classification can be illustrated as follows:

Notes on [Figure 1]: Both Bhoja and Rämänanda suggest a similar mechanism. But the object of Samäpatti is ananta for Rämänanda whereas it is änantya for Bhoja. Further, while Bhoja states that this practice will lead to cessation of pain due to the practice of äsana, it is Rämänanda who clearly establishes the cause and effect relationship between lack of pain and attainment of success (firmness and comfort) in äsanaNotes on [Figure 2]: It is interesting to note the mechanism proposed by Sadaçiva. He states that by Visualizing oneself as Ananta, unseen merit is accrued and by that success in äsana is achieved. Though it seems to be similar to the one proposed by Vijïänabhikñu, there is a subtle variation. Vijïänabhikñu makes visualization and "unseen merit" as two distinct factors for success in asana, whereas Sadaçiva clubs both and states that by a mere visualization success in äsana is not achieved. Rather it is the "unseen merit" (adåñöa), which is accrued in the process that leads to success in äsana.

Is Anantasamäpatti optional?

Vyäsa adds the term vä (meaning - or/and) while commencing his description on Anantasamäpatti. Vijïänabhikñu attempts to explain as to why Vyäsa might have made this comment. In the view of Vijïänabhikñu, Prayatna is Bahuvyäpara (a lot of (strenous) activity). If one practices äsana after such prayatna then it leads to trembling of limbs. Hence, he states, one should desist (çaithilya) from involving in strenous activites just before the practice of äsanas. While explaining Anantasamäpatti, Vijïänabhikñu states, even if one is unable to avoid strenous exertion just before the practie of äsana, the practice of Anantasamäpatti will nullify the negative impact of strenous exertion and lead to firm and comfortable posture. This clarifies the usage of the term 'vä'. This also indicates the preference accorded to Anantasamäpatti over the other technique. Though Väcaspati Miçra also mentions the term "vä", still, no other sub-commentator other than Vijïänabhikñu has attempted an explanation as to why Vyäsa might have used the term "vä".

 Discussion



Observations and analysis were presented under four heads. The same pattern in followed for discussion also.

Ananta or Änantya

It is evident that there are two readings. Among the two, Ananta seems to be the probable reading and Çeña seems to be probable meaning. Because -

It is an ancient reading. Vyäsa's commentary is considered the oldest and closest to the period of Pataïjali. In all published editions of Vyäsa's commentary, one finds the reading as Ananta. Even in the Vyäsa's commentary that is printed along with the sub-commentary of Çaìkara one finds the reading as Ananta. Thus, this probably seems to be a change made by Bhoja and later followed by ÇaìkaraFurther, excepting Bhoja and Çaìkara, all other commentators follow the version provided by Vyäsa and uniformly interpret it as ÇeñaThough, among the commentators, the meaning Çeña is first proposed by Väcaspati Miçra (850 CE) still, Bhagavd-gétä (100-200 CE) [35] that predates the Yogasütras (350-400 CE) [36] has used the term, Ananta to indicate Çeña. Thus, the possibility of using the term Ananta to mean Çeña in Yogasütras is probableTo counter the above supposition, references that predate Bhagavd-gétä may be cited. For example there are passages in the Upaniñads (6 th -7 th BCE) [37] that prescribe meditation related to Ananta, the endless. Based on this it can be proposed that, ananta (and not necessarily änantya) can be taken to mean endless and not Çeña. Such a view based on the Upaniñads may be claimed to serve another purpose - that of averting the compulsion of making an exception to accommodate a proper noun (Çeña). A survey of the Yogasütras shows that no proper noun has been used by Pataïjali.

To the above objection that may arise, it may be stated that, in all the Upaniñadic reference mentioned above - Manas or Präëa or Näma (name) is advised to be visualized as Ananta (endless). The Upaniñads, in the same context, state that such a practitioner attains endless worlds (ananta-loka). As evident, the adjective Ananta (endless) is common, both to the object of meditation (Manas or Präëa or Näma) and the benefit (loka) derived from it. Whereas, in the present context of Anantasamäpatti of Yogasütras, following the Upaniñadic model, during the practice of äsana, if it is advised to meditate upon the endless sky or the world etc., it has to be stated as to how that endlessness will manifest in the result (transcending body consciousness to overcome the pain of äsana as suggested by Bhoja, does not explain this). Moreover, endlessness is not the desired outcome intended by Pataïjali. Rather, firmness and comfort of the posture are expected. Thus, the Upaniñadic connotation of ananta does not possibly suit the context of Anantasamäpatti. Further, making an exception by accepting a proper noun (Çeña) indeed may stand as a conspicuous reminder about the intended outcome of Anantasamäpatti.

· Finally, when one studies the sütras that immediately precede Anantasamäpatti one finds sutras that discuss Éçvarapraëédhäna [38] (devotion to Éçvara) and iñöadevatäsamprayoga [39] (communion with one's own chosen deity). In the same tenor, Anatasamäpatti in the form of contemplating about Lord Çeña might have been suggested by Pataïjali.

Meaning of the term Samäpatti

There can be no doubt regarding the meaning of the term Samäpatti as Pataïjali himself has defined it. [40] Still as presented earlier three interpretations emerge. The commentators could have simply chosen to remain silent on the definition of Samäpatti like Vyäsa and Väcaspati Miçra, thereby indicating the implicit acceptance of the definition of Pataïjali. But except these two, all others have attempted an interpretation.

Thus, the very attempt to present an interpretation, seems to be aimed at presenting Samäpatti as applicable/practicable in the initial stages of yogic practice (Samäpatti, as evident from the definition of Pataïjali and also from the context of its initial presentation in the Yogasütra, seems to be a higher practice which comes after attaining proficiency in some or any of the methods mentioned previously (Yogasütra 1.12-39) by Pataïjali).

Of the three such attempts presented earlier, the third interpretation seems serve the purpose. It does not adopt a roundabout approach to accommodate the principal meaning like the first one. Neither does it completely veer off the principal meaning like the second attempt.

Further, the following may be stated regarding the probability of the third interpretation-Yogasütras present Pratipakñabhävana [41] as an effective method to overcome contrary thoughts (Vitarka). Vyäsa states that this Pratipakñabhävana, which was mentioned in the context of sütra 2.32, shall be applied to other practices also. [42] Vijïänabhikñu, while elucidating this point, states specifically that "Pratipakñabhävana shall be extended to sütras that describe äsana and präëäyäma also". [43] When analyzed in this context, Anantasamäpatti seems to be a Bhävanä technique (according to the third interpretation of Samäpatti) that complements Pratipakñabhävana. By Pratipakñabhävana all contrary thoughts that may lead to instability in (sthira-sukha) asana may be withstood. Bhävanä related to Ananta (Anantasamäpatti) may boost the stability thus protected.

Further, the third view, if accepted as the practicable meaning of Samäpatti, also assists in the emergence of a tangible mechanism of working of this technique, which is discussed in the next portion of the paper.

Mechanism of working

The views suggested by Bhoja and Rämänanda [Figure 1] seem logical. But, the idea that body consciousness is transcended to attain firm and comfortable posture may not gain the acceptance of modern day exponents. Iyengar states "One should not remain in anaesthetized, sedated state while doing Yogäsana." [44] Further TKV Desikachar states "By training we mask our pain. Our breath will get disturbed0" [45]

Accruing unseen merit and blessing of Ananta [Figure 2] are based on faith"The impact of visualization of oneself as Ananta" [Figure 2] seems to be a tangible mechanism. Pataïjali's words, in a couple of occasions, testify to the efficacy of Bhävana in leading to desired results.In the Sädhanapäda, immediately after the discussion on Pratipakñabhävana, Pataïjali presents various siddhis (powers). [46] Vyäsa brings out the significance of the sequence when he states "by Pratipakñabhävana contrary thoughts reach a state from where they never sprout and powers (siddhis) acquired by that, indicate success in the practice[47] Thus it becomes evident that Bhävanä(on contrary thoughts) is considered an important step in the mechanism of working of any yogic techniqueFurther, Pataïjali considers Bhävanä as a tool for attaining clarity of mind also. [48]

Is the practice optional?

Anantasamäpatti does not seem to be an optional technique. Because -

Except Vyäsa, who made the usage vä and Vijïänabhikñu who attempted an explanation to it no other sub-commentator or commentator has given any input regarding the optional nature of Anantasamäpatti. Most commentators (quoted earlier) state "täbhyamäsanam siddhyati" (Success in äsana is achieved by both these techniques)Adding to this, if it may be taken as optional then, this would result in a self-contradiction for Vyäsa in interpreting the dual suffix of the instrumental case. Pataïjali employs the same dual suffix (dvivacana-pratyaya) 'bhyäm' in 12 th sütra of the first Päda, while presenting the twin methods abhyäsa and vairägya. Vyäsa, while commenting upon it, clearly mentions that "…restriction of modification of the mind (cittavåtti-nirodha) depends on both" [49] (and not any one of them). Thus, making it clear that both are essentialFurther, had Pataïjali intended to make Anantasamäpatti optional he could have very well used the term vä. It is to be noted that in the first chapter, to indicate optional nature of the concept being stated, the term Vä has been used many times by Pataïjali. [50]

Hence, the term vä used by Vyäsa, can be taken to mean the less conventional yet probable "and" (conjunctive sense) [51] and not "or" (disjunctive sense). The justification given by Vijïänabhikñu can be considered to highlight the importance of the practice of Anantasamäpatti.

 Summary and Conclusion



From the discussion above it follows that - Ananta is the probable reading, and the meaning seems to be Çeña. Samäpatti is visualization of oneself as firm and strong like Çeña. The mechanism of working seems to be the effect of mental visualization on physical firmness. And this requires to be practiced along with Prayatnaçaithilya.

It was stated in the introduction that there is contemporary uncertainty regarding Ananatasamäpatti. It seems to stem from traditional sources. But, the literary traces left behind by these traditional interpretations and the analysis based on them has helped to arrive at the probable reading and the intended meaning.

Readings and meanings presented at the end of this discussion are based on literary analysis only. A scientific study based on the conclusions proposed above and also the various options that were offered by the traditional commentaries may help to ascertain the impact of Anantasamäpatti in the practice of äsana.

References

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8Desikachar TK. Chapter: Theory: The foruth aṅga: prāṇāyāma. Religiousness in Yoga. Maryland: University Press of America; 1980. p. 133.
9Gerald JL, Ramshankar B. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Yoga: India′s Philosophy of Meditation. Vol. XII. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers; 2008. p. 9, 10. The Encyclopedia lists 28 works which are direct commentaries or works related to Yogasütra in Sanskrit. It has been observed that later commentaries follow the earlier commentaries in most aspects. Hence only ten earliest (till 1800 CE) commentaries are utilized for this study to avoid repetition. It can be noted in this paper that even among the early 10 commentaries there is repetition (Näräyaëatértha and NägojiBhaööa).
10Raveh, Daniel. Exploring the Yogasutra, Philosophy and Translation, A and C Black, London, p. 10-15.
11Bernard, Theos. Hindu Philosophy, New Delhi, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1999, p. 100.
12Two translations of Vyäsa′s commentary have given two different translations to Samäpatti-Contemplating on the infinite (Ganganath J. The Yoga Darçana. Bombay: Bombay Thesophical Publication Fund; 1907. p. 90). Mind stuff comes to a balanced state with reference to Ananta (James HW. The Yoga System of Pataïjali. Massachusetts: The Harvard University Press; 1914. p. 192.)
13anante vä samäpannaà cittamäsanaà nirvartayatiǀSastri, Damodara. Yoga Darśana of Patañjali,with Scholium of Vyāsa, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, Reprint 2007. p. 268
14This sub-commentary to Yogasütra-s is called Tattvavaiçäradé. Naiker, Chandramouli. Patanjali of Yogasutras, New Delhi, Sahitya Akademi, 2002, p. 17.
15anante vä näganäyake sthirataraphaëäsahasravidhåtaviçvambharä maëòale samäpannaà cittam äsanaà nirvartayatétiǀSearch and Retrival of Indic Texts [internet] c2014. [cited 2014 October 11] Available at http://data.stonesutras.org:8070/exist/apps/sarit/works/tattvavai%C5%9B%C4%81rad%C4%AB-body-div-2-div-94.html.
16His independent commentary on the Yogasütra is called as Bhojavåtti. Whicher, Ian. The Integrity of Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga. New York, SUNY Press, 1998. p. 320.
17yadä ca äkäçädigata änäntye cetasaù samäpattiù kriyate avyavadhänena/avadhänena tädätmyamäpadyate tadä dehähaìkäräbhävännäsanaà duùkhajanakaà bhavati Search and Retrival of Indic Texts [internet] c2014. [cited 2014 October 11 ] Available at http://data.stonesutras.org:8070/exist/apps/sarit/works/r%C4%81jam%C4%81rta%E1%B9%87%E1%B8%8Da-body-div-3-div-132.html
18The name of his work is Vivaraëa. This is a sub-commentary on Vyäsa′s commentary. The world of scholars is divided on the date and authorship of this commentary attributed to Çaìkara.(Encyclopaedia of Indian Philosophies, pp 239-240). Dr.T.S.Rukmani has made a detailed analysis quoting various previous discussions and has stated that the author of this commentary is different from Çaìkara, the commentator of Brahmasütra and the period of the author of Vivaraëa cannot be later than 15 th century CE.(Rukmani TS. Introduction. Yogasütrabhäñyavivaraëa of Çaìkara. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers; 2001. p. XXX).
19anantaà viçvam anantabhävaù änantyam tasmin samäpannaà vyäpya viçvabhävaà sthitaà cittamäsanaà nirvartayati draòhayatiǀRukmani TS. Introduction. yogsūtrabhāṣyavivaraṇa of śaṅkara. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers; 2001. p. 369.
20His sub-commentary to Vyäsa′s commentary is called as Yogavärttika. White, David Gordon. The "Yogasutra of Patanjali": A Biography, Princeton, Princeton University Press; 2014. p. xi,xii.
21atha vä prayatnaçälitve′pi påthivédhäriëi sthirataraçeñanäge samäpannaà taddhäraëayä tadätmatäpannaà cittamäsanaà niñpädayatétyarthaù taccänugrahädvä sajätéyabhävanävaçädvä adåñöaviçeñädvä ityanyadetatǀ Rukmani, TS. Yogavārttika of Vijñānabhikṣu, Vol.2. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers; 2001. p. 219.
22His independent commentary on Yogasütra is called Maëiprabhä. Winternitz, Maurice. History of Indian Literature, New Delhi, Motilal Banarsidas, 2008. p. 557.
23anante näganäyake sthirataraphaëäsahasravidhåtaviçvamaëòale cittasya samäpattyä dehäbhimänäbhävena äsanaduùkhäspürteù äsanaà siddhyatiǀ śāstri, paṇḍit ḍhuṇḍirāja, Editor,Yogasūtra, Chaukhamba, Sanskrit Sasnthan, Varanasi, 2009. p. 106.
24His independent commentary on Yogasütra is called Pradépa. Arya, Usharbuda. Himalayan international Institue of Yoga,Pennsylvania yogasūṭra patañjali with the expostion of vyāsa, 1986. p. 10.
25Anantasamäpattiçca påthivédhäriëi sthiratare çeñanäge cittasya dhäraëamǀ śāstri, paṇḍit ḍhuṇḍirāja, Editor,Maṇiprabhā commentary section, Yogasūtram ṣaṭṭîkopetam, Chaukhamba, Sanskrit Sasnthan, Varanasi, 2009. p. 106.
26His independent commentary on the Yogasutra is called yogasiddhäntacandrikä. Iyengar, BKS, Astadalayogamala, Vol.7, New Delhi, Allied Publishers p. 68.
27anante påthivédhäriëi sthiratare çeñanäge samäpattyä dhäraëayä cittasya tädätmatärüpäpattyä cäsanaà sthiraà bhavatétyarthaùǀ etacca anantasamäpattitaù adåñöäviçeñavaçät bhävanäparipäkena tadanantänugrahädvä ityanyadetatǀ Karnatak, Vimala. yogasiddhāntacandrikā, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, 2000. p. 114.
28His independent commentary on Yogasütra is called as Våtti. Coward, Harold G, Potter, Karl H and Raja, K.Kunjunni. The Philosophy of Grammarians, Vol.5, New Delhi, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1990. p. 323.
29anante påthivédhäriëi samäpattiù cittasya dhäraëä täbhyämäsanaà siddhyati ityarthaùǀśāstri, paṇḍit ḍhuṇḍirāja, Editor,Vṛtti commentary section, Yogasūtram ṣaṭṭîkopetam, Chaukhamba, Sanskrit Sasnthan, Varanasi, 2009. p. 106.
30His independent commentary on the Yogasütra is called as Yogasudhäkara. Sarasvati, Sadashivendra. Yoga Sudhakara, Sri Rangam, Sri Vani Vilas Press, 1912. p. i.
31phaëäsahasreëa dharaëéà dhärayitvä sthairyeëävasthito yo′yamanantaù sa evähamasméti dhyänaà cittasya anante samäpattiùǀ tayä yathoktäsanasampädakamadåñöaà niñpadyate Dikshita, Sivarama. Yogasutram with the commentary Yogasudhakara, Chennai, Sanskrit Education Society, 1983. p. 38.
32Rama S, Krishnamurthy S. Pätaïjalayogasütrabhäñyavivaraëam of Çaìkarabhagavatpäda. Madras: Government Oriental Manuscaript Library; 1952. p. 226-7.
33kñéëavåtterabhijätasyeva maëergrahétågrahaëägrähyeñu tatsthatadaïjanatä samäpättiù, Yogasütra 1.41. Sanskrit Documents [internet] c2009 [cited on 2014 October 12] Available from http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_pdf/bhojavritti.pdf.
34Sajätéyabhävanävaçädvä... Rukmani, TS. Yogavārttika of Vijñānabhikṣu, Vol.2. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers; 2001. p. 219.
35Bhagavadgéta. Ch. 10, Verse 29. Reference for period of Bhagavadgéta. Brockington J. The Sanskrit Epics. Leiden: Brill; 1998. p. 148.
36Gerald JL, Ramshankar B. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Yoga: India′s Philosophy of Meditation. Vol. XII. Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas Publishers; 2008. p. 161.
37Båhadäraëyaka-Upaniñad 4.1.5 and 1.5.14, Chändogya-Upaniñad 1.9.2, (Reference for Period of the Upaniñads: Patric O. The Early Upaniñads. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. xxxvi).
38Yogasūtra 2.44, 2.45, 1.41, 2.33 Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
39Yogasūtra 2.44, 2.45, 1.41, 2.33 Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
40Yogasūtra 2.44, 2.45, 1.41, 2.33 Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
41Yogasūtra 2.44, 2.45, 1.41, 2.33 Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
42süträntareñvapi yojyam. Apte, Narayana Editor, Pātañjalayogasūtraṇi , Pune Anandashrama Press.1904. p.106.
43…pratipakñabhävanam-ityevamädikaà süträntareñu äsanapräëäyämasütreñvapi yojanéyam. Rukmani, TS. Commentary to the yogasūṭra2.33, Yogavārttika of Vijñānabhikṣu, Vol.2. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers; 2001. p. 200.
44Iyengar BK. Añöadalayogamälä. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Private Limited; 2001. p. 81.
45Desikachar TK. Chapter:The Principles of Practice Religiousness in Yoga. Maryland: University Press of America; 1980. p. 14.
46Yogasütra. p. 2.33-5. Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11]Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
47Pratipakñabhävanäddhetoù…tatkåtamaiçvaryaà yoginaù siddhisücakaà bhavati ǀ Vyäsa on Yogasütra 2.35. Sastri, Damodara. Chapter two sūtra 35, Yoga Darśana of Patañjali,with Scholium of Vyāsa, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, Reprint 2007.
48…bhävanätaù cittaprasädanam. Yogasütra 1.33. Chapter 1 sūtra 33, Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
49…ubhayädhénaù cittavåttinirodhaù. Sastri, Damodara. Chapter one sūtra 12, Yoga Darśana of Patañjali,with Scholium of Vyāsa, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, Reprint 2007. p. 45.
50Yogasütra. 1.23, 1.34-9. Chapter 1 verses 23, 34 to 39 Yogasutra study [Internet] c2014 [cited on 2014 October 11] Available from -http://yogasutrastudy.info/yoga-sutra-translations/ysp-in-devanagari-sanskrit/.
51vä syädvikalpopamayorevärthe ca samuccaye - viçvakoça, Quoted in the Vyakhyäsudhä commentary by Rämäçramé of amarakoça 3.3.249. In: Dadhimatha, Shivadatta, editors. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; Reprint Edition 2002.