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   2018| January-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 31, 2018

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Deva shatru/Daitya/Asura grahonmada: Antisocial/Narcissistic/Borderline personality disorder?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
January-June 2018, 6(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_34_17  
Asura grahonmada (AG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada. Deva shatru and daitya grahonmada are used synonymously for AG. Bhootonmada is a broad category which comprises of various psychiatric or neuropsychiatric problems and they are assumed to be caused by affliction of evil spirits. Till date, no studies have been conducted on AG, and it is an under-explored topic in ayurvedic psychiatry field. The present study is focused on better understanding of AG and its clinical applicability. The present study aims at better understanding of AG along with its clinical applicability. AG is characterized by Jihma drishtim (crooked/dishonest/cruel/deceitful look), Dushtaatmaanaam (deceitful/exploitative/unlawful), Krodhanam (aggressive/hostile/impulsive), Atruptam (unsatisfied/unpleasant), Sasweda gaatram (sweating), Deva, braahmana, guru dveshinam (arrogant/grandiose/envious/negative emotionality), Nirbhayam & Shooram (reckless behaviour/impulsive), Abhimaaninam (grandiosity), Vyavasaayinam (violent/unlawful/firmness/persistence), 'Rudro aham',' upendro Aham', 'skandho aham', 'vishaakho aham' bhaashamaanam (grandiosity), Vikruta vaacham (hostility/verbal aggression), Asakrit hasantam (laughing frequently/affective dysregulation), Sura amisha ruchim (fond of alcohol and meat) and Dantai, nakhai himsantam (violent/physical aggression). The clinical picture of AG shows similarity with various psychiatric conditions such as antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and comorbidity among these conditions.
  6,283 331 -
Rakshasa grahonmada: Antisocial personality disorder with psychotic mania?
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
January-June 2018, 6(1):24-31
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_12_17  
“Bhuta vidya”/“Graha chikitsa” is one among the eight specialties of Ayurveda. This specialty deals with the mode of affl iction by evil spirits and making offerings to various grahas (supernatural powers/extraterrestrial forces/evil spirits) such as deva, pishacha, gandharva, yaksha, rakshasa, etc., for cure of diseases originating from their malignant infl uence. Acharya Vagbhata has described 18 types of bhootonmada (psychosis caused by affl iction of grahas). “Rakshasa grahonmada” (RG) is one among those 18 types. In Ayurveda, till date, the concept of grahnomada as a whole or individually is under explored. The present study aims at better understanding of RG in particular with modern research and literature support. RG is characterized by krodha drishti, bhairavaasya, bhrukuti udvahantam (anger, aggression, violent), tvaritam abhidhavantam, ruvantam, sambhramam, praharantam (agitation, impulsiveness, restlessness, hyperactivity), nashta nidra (sleeplessness), nisha vihaari (wandering at nights), anna dveshinam (aversion to food), shooram (grandiosity, violent, aggressive), nirlajja (disinhibition), ati balinam (excessive energy levels), stree priyam (hypersexuality), madya priyam (alcoholic/substance abuse), rakta, amisha priyam (food cravings to nonvegetarian items), deenam (depressed), shankitam (suspicious/paranoid), akasmaat rudantam, hasantam and gaayantam (inappropriate behavior) and nirarthakam paribhashanam (irrelevant speech) etc., features. These features of RG are similar to the condition of “antisocial personality disorder” (ASPD) comorbid with “psychotic mania.”RG is similar to ASPD comorbid with other conditions such as mania, schizophrenia, and substance abuse.
  3,956 252 -
Brahma rakshasa grahonmada: Borderline personality disorder?/tourette syndrome – plus?
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
January-June 2018, 6(1):32-40
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_14_17  
Brahma rakshasa grahonmada (BRG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada (psychiatric problems caused by the affl iction of evil spirits or super natural powers or extraterrestrial forces or idiopathic). Acharya Charaka and Vagbhata have described this condition. The present study aims at better understanding of BRG and its clinical signifi cance. BRG is characterized by Haasa nritya priyam (engaged in jocularity and dancing/euphoria/mania/hypomania), aakroshinam (verbal abuse), pradhaavinam (hyperactivity/pacing/running), deva dvija bhishak dveshinam (negativistic, defi ant, disobedient, hostile behavior toward authority figures) mantra veda shastra abhidayinam (religious obsessions/praying compulsions), kaashta shastraadhibhi aatmaanam ghnantam (self-injurious behavior), Chhidra prahaarinam and vaidya randhraanveshinam (exploding nature/aggressiveness/assaulting/low frustration tolerance/rage attacks), “bho” shabda vaadinam(making sounds like “bho”/vocal tics), parusham (lack of empathy/cruelty), raudra cheshtam (hostile/antisocial behavior), sheeghra gaaminam (hyperactivity/pacing/running/impulsivity), etc., features. These features of BRG show similarity with various psychiatric/neuropsychiatric conditions such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) which include oppositional defi ant disorder and conduct disorder and Tourette syndrome (TS)-plus (comorbid condition of TS with attention-defi cit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], and other behavioral disorders). BRG is similar to BPD or TS-Plus (TS + ADHD + OCD+DBD).
  2,871 197 -
Yaksha grahonmada: Bipolar disorder with obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
January-June 2018, 6(1):16-23
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_35_17  
Yaksha grahonmada (YG) is one among 18 types of grahonmada/bhootonmada. Bhootonmada is a broad category which includes various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions, and they are assumed to be caused by the affliction of evil spirits. Till date, no studies have been conducted on YG, and the concept, as well as clinical applicability of YG, is still not explored. The present study is focused on better understanding of YG and its clinical applicability. YG is characterized by Asakrit haasya rodana (frequent changes of mood/rapid cycling/emotional lability), Asakrit swapna (hypersomnia/sleep disturbances), Nritya, geeta, vaadya, paatha, kathaa ratim (fond of music, artistic, and creative activities), Annapaana ratim (increased appetite), Snaana, maalya, dhoopa, gandha ratim (fond of garlands, bathing, perfumes, etc.), Vipulta, trasta, rakta nayana (reddish, tired eyes with abnormal eye movements), Druta mati/Druta gati (agitations/restlessness/increased psychomotor activity), Rakta vastra ratim (fond of red color dresses/flamboyant), Sagarvam mattamiva gachhantam/kasmai kim dadaamin vaadinam (grandiosity), Bahu bhaashinam and alpa vaak (pressure of speech and psychomotor retardation/social withdrawal), Stree lolupam (hypersexuality), hrushtam/tushtam (euphoria/positive mood), Avyatham (reduced pain intensity), Ati balinam (excessive energy), madya priyam (alcohol abuse), amisha priyam (fond of meat), rahasya bhaashinam (revealing secrets/pressure of speech), Chalitaagra hastam (stereotypy or mannerisms of hands), dvijati vaidya paribhaavinam (hostility), Sutejasam, shubha gandham, alpa rosham, sahishnu (various obsessive-compulsive features), etc., features. The clinical picture of YG shows similarity with bipolar disorder(BD) associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Various obsessive-compulsive features along with features of mania and depression are seen in YG symptomatology.
  2,638 262 -
Deva grahonmada: Interictal behavior syndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy?/obsessive-compulsive disorder with mania?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
January-June 2018, 6(1):41-50
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_24_17  
Deva grahonmada (DG) is a type of grahonmada (psychiatric disorders with unknown etiopathology). DG is one among the 18 types (deva, asura, rishi, guru, vruddha, siddha, pitru, gandharva, yaksha, rakshasa, sarpa, brahma rakshasa, pishacha, kushmanda, nishada, preta, maukirana, and vetala) of grahonmada. Grahonmada is caused by affliction of evil spirits or super natural powers or extraterrestrial forces. The present study aims at better understanding of DG and its clinical significance. DG is characterized by features such as Phulla padmopamukham (charming/bright/gracious face), Varchasvinam (active/energetic/vigorous), Saumya drishtim (pleasant or auspicious look), Akopanam (peaceful), Gambheera (calm/composure/dignifi ed/grandiosity), Apradhrushya (invincible/not to be vanquished/grandiosity), Alpa vaak, sweda, vit, mootra (diminished speech, sweat, feces, and urine), Bhojana anabhilaashinam (not interested in food), Deva, dvija, guru bhaktam (following rituals/hyper-religiosity), Shuchim (excessive hygiene), Anidra (decreased need for sleep/sleeplessness), Samskruta vaadinam (refi ned/sacred speech), Chiraat aksheeni nimiliyantam (staring), Dadhi, ksheera, sura abhipraayam (fond of milk, yoghurt, and alcohol), Shukla maalya, ambara, sarita, pulina priyam (fond of white garments, garlands, and engaged in pleasurable activities/euphoria), Nistandri (energetic), Vara daayinam (offering boons/grandiosity),Surabhi (pleasant smelling), Santushta (happy/ecstasy/euphoric), and Avitatha prabhaashi (speaking truth). These features of DG have shown similarity with various psychiatric or neuropsychiatric conditions such as “interictal behavior syndrome (IBS)” of “temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)” and/or “obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)” and/or “Mania” and/or “Psychosis.” DG has shown similarity with IBS of TLE and/or OCD with mania.
  2,446 186 -
How to facilitate yogic lifestyle education among school-going adolescents? Some psychological learnings
Arun Pratap Singh, Girishwar Misra
January-June 2018, 6(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_27_17  
In the past few decades, yoga programs have begun to make their way in schools. However, in pursuance of induction of yogic lifestyle education programs in schools, instructors, teachers, and related agencies face multiple difficulties. To empower them to effectively carry out their professional responsibilities, knowledge of barriers and facilitators of the practice of yoga by schoolchildren and adolescents is pertinent. Against this backdrop, the objective of the present research paper is to share the key learning of researchers gained during conduct and reporting of a doctoral study on effectiveness of yogic lifestyle education program at a residential school situated in semi-urban setting of a developing country. In particular, it brings into focus major barriers, facilitators, and corresponding strategies critical for implementing yogic lifestyle education programs among school adolescents and presents some recommendations to that end.
  2,279 263 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of yoga on flexibility and psychomotor performance in college-going healthy individuals
Shivaprasad Shetty, Pailoor Subramanya, Venkatachalapathi Krishna Moorthy
January-June 2018, 6(1):51-54
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_36_17  
Background: Yoga is the science of right living and as such is intended to be incorporated into daily life. Studies related to yoga and flexibility were done mainly in elderly, and there is a lack of information on the studies related to yoga practices and psychomotor performance. This present study aims at evaluating the effect of yoga on flexibility and psychomotor performance in college-going healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals with the age varied from 18 to 22 years with no experience in practising yoga were randomized into two groups: yoga group (n = 50) and control group (n = 50). Baseline and postassessments of flexibility through sit and reach test (SAR) and psychomotor performances through digit letter substitution task (DLST) were collected before and after the intervention. Yoga group received yoga practices for the duration of 60 min and 6 days per week for 3 months. Data were statistically analyzed with paired sample t-test (within the group) and independent sample t-test (between the groups) by using statistical package for the social sciences version 16. Results: The results in this present study show a significant improvement in SAR test and DLST score in the yoga group in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The yoga practices given for a 3-month duration are useful in improving the flexibility and psychomotor performance in college-going students.
  1,991 212 -
EDITORIAL
Theory of something for everything
Ramachandra G Bhat
January-June 2018, 6(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.233631  
  1,840 267 -
BOOK REVIEW
The energy of health
Sheeba Naaz
January-June 2018, 6(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_5_18  
  1,280 129 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Diabetes mellitus type 2 and yoga
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-June 2018, 6(1):55-55
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_23_17  
  1,220 136 -
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